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Class: Object

Relationships & Source Files
Super Chains via Extension / Inclusion / Inheritance
Instance Chain:
self, ::Kernel
Inherits: BasicObject
Defined in: class.c,
bignum.c,
enumerator.c,
eval.c,
gc.c,
hash.c,
io.c,
numeric.c,
object.c,
proc.c,
variable.c,
vm_eval.c,
vm_method.c

Overview

Object is the default root of all Ruby objects. Object inherits from ::BasicObject which allows creating alternate object hierarchies. Methods on Object are available to all classes unless explicitly overridden.

Object mixes in the ::Kernel module, making the built-in kernel functions globally accessible. Although the instance methods of Object are defined by the ::Kernel module, we have chosen to document them here for clarity.

When referencing constants in classes inheriting from Object you do not need to use the full namespace. For example, referencing ::File inside YourClass will find the top-level ::File class.

In the descriptions of Object's methods, the parameter symbol refers to a symbol, which is either a quoted string or a ::Symbol (such as :name).

Constant Summary

Instance Attribute Summary

Instance Method Summary

::Kernel - Included

#pp

Alias for Kernel#pp.

#warn

If warnings have been disabled (for example with the -W0 flag), does nothing.

Instance Attribute Details

#frozen?Boolean (readonly)

Returns the freeze status of obj.

a = [ "a", "b", "c" ]
a.freeze    #=> ["a", "b", "c"]
a.frozen?   #=> true
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# File 'object.c', line 1363

VALUE
rb_obj_frozen_p(VALUE obj)
{
    return OBJ_FROZEN(obj) ? Qtrue : Qfalse;
}

#nil?Boolean (readonly)

Only the object nil responds true to nil?.

Object.new.nil?   #=> false
nil.nil?          #=> true
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# File 'object.c', line 1655

MJIT_FUNC_EXPORTED VALUE
rb_false(VALUE obj)
{
    return Qfalse;
}

#tainted?Boolean (readonly)

Returns false. This method is deprecated and will be removed in Ruby 3.2.

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# File 'object.c', line 1216

VALUE
rb_obj_tainted(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_warn_deprecated_to_remove("Object#tainted?", "3.2");
    return Qfalse;
}

#untrusted?Boolean (readonly)

Returns false. This method is deprecated and will be removed in Ruby 3.2.

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# File 'object.c', line 1259

VALUE
rb_obj_untrusted(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_warn_deprecated_to_remove("Object#untrusted?", "3.2");
    return Qfalse;
}

Instance Method Details

#!~(other) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if two objects do not match (using the =~ method), otherwise false.

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# File 'object.c', line 1690

static VALUE
rb_obj_not_match(VALUE obj1, VALUE obj2)
{
    VALUE result = rb_funcall(obj1, id_match, 1, obj2);
    return RTEST(result) ? Qfalse : Qtrue;
}

#<=>(other) ⇒ 0?

Returns 0 if obj and other are the same object or obj == other, otherwise nil.

The #<=> is used by various methods to compare objects, for example Enumerable#sort, Enumerable#max etc.

Your implementation of #<=> should return one of the following values: -1, 0, 1 or nil. -1 means self is smaller than other. 0 means self is equal to other. 1 means self is bigger than other. Nil means the two values could not be compared.

When you define #<=>, you can include ::Comparable to gain the methods #<=, #<, #==, #>=, #> and #between?.

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# File 'object.c', line 1716

static VALUE
rb_obj_cmp(VALUE obj1, VALUE obj2)
{
    if (obj1 == obj2 || rb_equal(obj1, obj2))
	return INT2FIX(0);
    return Qnil;
}

#===(other) ⇒ Boolean

Case Equality – For class Object, effectively the same as calling #==, but typically overridden by descendants to provide meaningful semantics in case statements.

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# File 'object.c', line 144

VALUE
rb_equal(VALUE obj1, VALUE obj2)
{
    VALUE result;

    if (obj1 == obj2) return Qtrue;
    result = rb_equal_opt(obj1, obj2);
    if (result == Qundef) {
	result = rb_funcall(obj1, id_eq, 1, obj2);
    }
    if (RTEST(result)) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

#=~(other) ⇒ nil

This method is deprecated.

This is not only useless but also troublesome because it may hide a type error.

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# File 'object.c', line 1672

static VALUE
rb_obj_match(VALUE obj1, VALUE obj2)
{
    if (rb_warning_category_enabled_p(RB_WARN_CATEGORY_DEPRECATED)) {
        rb_warn("deprecated Object#=~ is called on %"PRIsVALUE
                "; it always returns nil", rb_obj_class(obj1));
    }
    return Qnil;
}

#classclass

Returns the class of obj. This method must always be called with an explicit receiver, as #class is also a reserved word in Ruby.

1.class      #=> Integer
self.class   #=> Object
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# File 'object.c', line 298

VALUE
rb_obj_class(VALUE obj)
{
    return rb_class_real(CLASS_OF(obj));
}

#clone(freeze: true) ⇒ Object

Produces a shallow copy of obj—the instance variables of obj are copied, but not the objects they reference. #clone copies the frozen (unless :freeze keyword argument is given with a false value) state of obj. See also the discussion under #dup.

class Klass
   attr_accessor :str
end
s1 = Klass.new      #=> #<Klass:0x401b3a38>
s1.str = "Hello"    #=> "Hello"
s2 = s1.clone       #=> #<Klass:0x401b3998 @str="Hello">
s2.str[1,4] = "i"   #=> "i"
s1.inspect          #=> "#<Klass:0x401b3a38 @str=\"Hi\">"
s2.inspect          #=> "#<Klass:0x401b3998 @str=\"Hi\">"

This method may have class-specific behavior. If so, that behavior will be documented under the #initialize_copy method of the class.

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# File 'object.c', line 417

static VALUE
rb_obj_clone2(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    int kwfreeze = freeze_opt(argc, argv);
    if (!special_object_p(obj))
	return mutable_obj_clone(obj, kwfreeze);
    return immutable_obj_clone(obj, kwfreeze);
}

#define_singleton_method(symbol, method) ⇒ Symbol #define_singleton_method(symbol) ⇒ Symbol

Defines a singleton method in the receiver. The method parameter can be a ::Proc, a ::Method or an ::UnboundMethod object. If a block is specified, it is used as the method body. If a block or a method has parameters, they're used as method parameters.

class A
  class << self
    def class_name
      to_s
    end
  end
end
A.define_singleton_method(:who_am_i) do
  "I am: #{class_name}"
end
A.who_am_i   # ==> "I am: A"

guy = "Bob"
guy.define_singleton_method(:hello) { "#{self}: Hello there!" }
guy.hello    #=>  "Bob: Hello there!"

chris = "Chris"
chris.define_singleton_method(:greet) {|greeting| "#{greeting}, I'm Chris!" }
chris.greet("Hi") #=> "Hi, I'm Chris!"
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# File 'proc.c', line 2155

static VALUE
rb_obj_define_method(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE klass = rb_singleton_class(obj);

    return rb_mod_define_method(argc, argv, klass);
}

#display(port = $>) ⇒ nil

Prints obj on the given port (default $>). Equivalent to:

def display(port=$>)
  port.write self
  nil
end

For example:

1.display
"cat".display
[ 4, 5, 6 ].display
puts

produces:

1cat[4, 5, 6]
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# File 'io.c', line 7927

static VALUE
rb_obj_display(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE self)
{
    VALUE out;

    out = (!rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1) ? rb_stdout : argv[0]);
    rb_io_write(out, self);

    return Qnil;
}

#dupObject

Produces a shallow copy of obj—the instance variables of obj are copied, but not the objects they reference.

This method may have class-specific behavior. If so, that behavior will be documented under the #initialize_copy method of the class.

on dup vs clone

In general, #clone and #dup may have different semantics in descendant classes. While #clone is used to duplicate an object, including its internal state, #dup typically uses the class of the descendant object to create the new instance.

When using #dup, any modules that the object has been extended with will not be copied.

class Klass
  attr_accessor :str
end

module Foo
  def foo; 'foo'; end
end

s1 = Klass.new #=> #<Klass:0x401b3a38>
s1.extend(Foo) #=> #<Klass:0x401b3a38>
s1.foo #=> "foo"

s2 = s1.clone #=> #<Klass:0x401b3a38>
s2.foo #=> "foo"

s3 = s1.dup #=> #<Klass:0x401b3a38>
s3.foo #=> NoMethodError: undefined method `foo' for #<Klass:0x401b3a38>
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# File 'object.c', line 557

VALUE
rb_obj_dup(VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE dup;

    if (special_object_p(obj)) {
	return obj;
    }
    dup = rb_obj_alloc(rb_obj_class(obj));
    init_copy(dup, obj);
    rb_funcall(dup, id_init_dup, 1, obj);

    return dup;
}

#to_enum(method = :each, *args) ⇒ Enumerator #enum_for(method = :each, *args) ⇒ Enumerator #to_enum(method = :each, *args) {|*args| ... } ⇒ Enumerator #enum_for(method = :each, *args) {|*args| ... } ⇒ Enumerator

Alias for #to_enum.

#eql?(other) ⇒ Boolean

Alias for BasicObject#==.

#extend(module, ...) ⇒ Object

Adds to obj the instance methods from each module given as a parameter.

module Mod
  def hello
    "Hello from Mod.\n"
  end
end

class Klass
  def hello
    "Hello from Klass.\n"
  end
end

k = Klass.new
k.hello         #=> "Hello from Klass.\n"
k.extend(Mod)   #=> #<Klass:0x401b3bc8>
k.hello         #=> "Hello from Mod.\n"
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# File 'eval.c', line 1768

static VALUE
rb_obj_extend(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    int i;
    ID id_extend_object, id_extended;

    CONST_ID(id_extend_object, "extend_object");
    CONST_ID(id_extended, "extended");

    rb_check_arity(argc, 1, UNLIMITED_ARGUMENTS);
    for (i = 0; i < argc; i++)
	Check_Type(argv[i], T_MODULE);
    while (argc--) {
	rb_funcall(argv[argc], id_extend_object, 1, obj);
	rb_funcall(argv[argc], id_extended, 1, obj);
    }
    return obj;
}

#freezeObject

Prevents further modifications to obj. A ::RuntimeError will be raised if modification is attempted. There is no way to unfreeze a frozen object. See also #frozen?.

This method returns self.

a = [ "a", "b", "c" ]
a.freeze
a << "z"

produces:

prog.rb:3:in `<<': can't modify frozen Array (FrozenError)
 from prog.rb:3

Objects of the following classes are always frozen: ::Integer, ::Float, ::Symbol.

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# File 'object.c', line 1334

VALUE
rb_obj_freeze(VALUE obj)
{
    if (!OBJ_FROZEN(obj)) {
	OBJ_FREEZE(obj);
	if (SPECIAL_CONST_P(obj)) {
	    rb_bug("special consts should be frozen.");
	}
    }
    return obj;
}

#hashInteger

Generates an ::Integer hash value for this object. This function must have the property that a.eql?(b) implies a.hash == b.hash.

The hash value is used along with #eql? by the ::Hash class to determine if two objects reference the same hash key. Any hash value that exceeds the capacity of an ::Integer will be truncated before being used.

The hash value for an object may not be identical across invocations or implementations of Ruby. If you need a stable identifier across Ruby invocations and implementations you will need to generate one with a custom method.

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# File 'hash.c', line 320

VALUE
rb_obj_hash(VALUE obj)
{
    long hnum = any_hash(obj, objid_hash);
    return ST2FIX(hnum);
}

#initialize_clone(*args)

! :nodoc:

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# File 'object.c', line 677

static VALUE
rb_obj_init_clone(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE orig, opts;
    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "1:", &orig, &opts);
    /* Ignore a freeze keyword */
    if (argc == 2) (void)freeze_opt(1, &opts);
    rb_funcall(obj, id_init_copy, 1, orig);
    return obj;
}

#initialize_copy(orig)

This method is for internal use only.
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# File 'object.c', line 640

VALUE
rb_obj_init_copy(VALUE obj, VALUE orig)
{
    if (obj == orig) return obj;
    rb_check_frozen(obj);
    if (TYPE(obj) != TYPE(orig) || rb_obj_class(obj) != rb_obj_class(orig)) {
	rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "initialize_copy should take same class object");
    }
    return obj;
}

#initialize_dup(orig)

! :nodoc:

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# File 'object.c', line 660

VALUE
rb_obj_init_dup_clone(VALUE obj, VALUE orig)
{
    rb_funcall(obj, id_init_copy, 1, orig);
    return obj;
}

#inspectString

Returns a string containing a human-readable representation of obj. The default #inspect shows the object's class name, an encoding of its memory address, and a list of the instance variables and their values (by calling #inspect on each of them). User defined classes should override this method to provide a better representation of obj. When overriding this method, it should return a string whose encoding is compatible with the default external encoding.

[ 1, 2, 3..4, 'five' ].inspect   #=> "[1, 2, 3..4, \"five\"]"
Time.new.inspect                 #=> "2008-03-08 19:43:39 +0900"

class Foo
end
Foo.new.inspect                  #=> "#<Foo:0x0300c868>"

class Bar
  def initialize
    @bar = 1
  end
end
Bar.new.inspect                  #=> "#<Bar:0x0300c868 @bar=1>"
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# File 'object.c', line 807

static VALUE
rb_obj_inspect(VALUE obj)
{
    if (rb_ivar_count(obj) > 0) {
	VALUE str;
	VALUE c = rb_class_name(CLASS_OF(obj));

	str = rb_sprintf("-<%"PRIsVALUE":%p", c, (void*)obj);
	return rb_exec_recursive(inspect_obj, obj, str);
    }
    else {
	return rb_any_to_s(obj);
    }
}

#instance_of?(class) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if obj is an instance of the given class. See also #kind_of?.

class A;     end
class B < A; end
class C < B; end

b = B.new
b.instance_of? A   #=> false
b.instance_of? B   #=> true
b.instance_of? C   #=> false
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# File 'object.c', line 865

VALUE
rb_obj_is_instance_of(VALUE obj, VALUE c)
{
    c = class_or_module_required(c);
    if (rb_obj_class(obj) == c) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

#instance_variable_defined?(symbol) ⇒ Boolean #instance_variable_defined?(string) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if the given instance variable is defined in obj. ::String arguments are converted to symbols.

class Fred
  def initialize(p1, p2)
    @a, @b = p1, p2
  end
end
fred = Fred.new('cat', 99)
fred.instance_variable_defined?(:@a)    #=> true
fred.instance_variable_defined?("@b")   #=> true
fred.instance_variable_defined?("@c")   #=> false
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# File 'object.c', line 2994

static VALUE
rb_obj_ivar_defined(VALUE obj, VALUE iv)
{
    ID id = id_for_var(obj, iv, instance);

    if (!id) {
	return Qfalse;
    }
    return rb_ivar_defined(obj, id);
}

#instance_variable_get(symbol) ⇒ Object #instance_variable_get(string) ⇒ Object

Returns the value of the given instance variable, or nil if the instance variable is not set. The @ part of the variable name should be included for regular instance variables. Throws a ::NameError exception if the supplied symbol is not valid as an instance variable name. ::String arguments are converted to symbols.

class Fred
  def initialize(p1, p2)
    @a, @b = p1, p2
  end
end
fred = Fred.new('cat', 99)
fred.instance_variable_get(:@a)    #=> "cat"
fred.instance_variable_get("@b")   #=> 99
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# File 'object.c', line 2932

static VALUE
rb_obj_ivar_get(VALUE obj, VALUE iv)
{
    ID id = id_for_var(obj, iv, instance);

    if (!id) {
	return Qnil;
    }
    return rb_ivar_get(obj, id);
}

#instance_variable_set(symbol, obj) ⇒ Object #instance_variable_set(string, obj) ⇒ Object

Sets the instance variable named by symbol to the given object, thereby frustrating the efforts of the class's author to attempt to provide proper encapsulation. The variable does not have to exist prior to this call. If the instance variable name is passed as a string, that string is converted to a symbol.

class Fred
  def initialize(p1, p2)
    @a, @b = p1, p2
  end
end
fred = Fred.new('cat', 99)
fred.instance_variable_set(:@a, 'dog')   #=> "dog"
fred.instance_variable_set(:@c, 'cat')   #=> "cat"
fred.inspect                             #=> "#<Fred:0x401b3da8 @a=\"dog\", @b=99, @c=\"cat\">"
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# File 'object.c', line 2966

static VALUE
rb_obj_ivar_set(VALUE obj, VALUE iv, VALUE val)
{
    ID id = id_for_var(obj, iv, instance);
    if (!id) id = rb_intern_str(iv);
    return rb_ivar_set(obj, id, val);
}

#instance_variablesArray

Returns an array of instance variable names for the receiver. Note that simply defining an accessor does not create the corresponding instance variable.

class Fred
  attr_accessor :a1
  def initialize
    @iv = 3
  end
end
Fred.new.instance_variables   #=> [:@iv]
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# File 'variable.c', line 1583

VALUE
rb_obj_instance_variables(VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE ary;

    ary = rb_ary_new();
    rb_ivar_foreach(obj, ivar_i, ary);
    return ary;
}

#is_a?(class) ⇒ Boolean #kind_of?(class) ⇒ Boolean
Also known as: #kind_of?

Returns true if class is the class of obj, or if class is one of the superclasses of obj or modules included in obj.

module M;    end
class A
  include M
end
class B < A; end
class C < B; end

b = B.new
b.is_a? A          #=> true
b.is_a? B          #=> true
b.is_a? C          #=> false
b.is_a? M          #=> true

b.kind_of? A       #=> true
b.kind_of? B       #=> true
b.kind_of? C       #=> false
b.kind_of? M       #=> true
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# File 'object.c', line 909

VALUE
rb_obj_is_kind_of(VALUE obj, VALUE c)
{
    VALUE cl = CLASS_OF(obj);

    c = class_or_module_required(c);
    return class_search_ancestor(cl, RCLASS_ORIGIN(c)) ? Qtrue : Qfalse;
}

#itselfObject

Returns the receiver.

string = "my string"
string.itself.object_id == string.object_id   #=> true
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# File 'object.c', line 583

static VALUE
rb_obj_itself(VALUE obj)
{
    return obj;
}

#is_a?(class) ⇒ Boolean #kind_of?(class) ⇒ Boolean

Alias for #is_a?.

#method(sym) ⇒ method

Looks up the named method as a receiver in obj, returning a ::Method object (or raising ::NameError). The Method object acts as a closure in obj's object instance, so instance variables and the value of self remain available.

class Demo
  def initialize(n)
    @iv = n
  end
  def hello()
    "Hello, @iv = #{@iv}"
  end
end

k = Demo.new(99)
m = k.method(:hello)
m.call   #=> "Hello, @iv = 99"

l = Demo.new('Fred')
m = l.method("hello")
m.call   #=> "Hello, @iv = Fred"

Note that ::Method implements to_proc method, which means it can be used with iterators.

[ 1, 2, 3 ].each(&method(:puts)) # => prints 3 lines to stdout

out = File.open('test.txt', 'w')
[ 1, 2, 3 ].each(&out.method(:puts)) # => prints 3 lines to file

require 'date'
%w[2017-03-01 2017-03-02].collect(&Date.method(:parse))
#=> [#<Date: 2017-03-01 ((2457814j,0s,0n),+0s,2299161j)>, #<Date: 2017-03-02 ((2457815j,0s,0n),+0s,2299161j)>]
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# File 'proc.c', line 1864

VALUE
rb_obj_method(VALUE obj, VALUE vid)
{
    return obj_method(obj, vid, FALSE);
}

#methods(regular = true) ⇒ Array

Returns a list of the names of public and protected methods of obj. This will include all the methods accessible in obj's ancestors. If the optional parameter is false, it returns an array of obj's public and protected singleton methods, the array will not include methods in modules included in obj.

class Klass
  def klass_method()
  end
end
k = Klass.new
k.methods[0..9]    #=> [:klass_method, :nil?, :===,
                   #    :==~, :!, :eql?
                   #    :hash, :<=>, :class, :singleton_class]
k.methods.length   #=> 56

k.methods(false)   #=> []
def k.singleton_method; end
k.methods(false)   #=> [:singleton_method]

module M123; def m123; end end
k.extend M123
k.methods(false)   #=> [:singleton_method]
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# File 'class.c', line 1398

VALUE
rb_obj_methods(int argc, const VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1);
    if (argc > 0 && !RTEST(argv[0])) {
	return rb_obj_singleton_methods(argc, argv, obj);
    }
    return class_instance_method_list(argc, argv, CLASS_OF(obj), 1, ins_methods_i);
}

#object_idInteger

Alias for BasicObject#__id__. Returns an integer identifier for obj.

The same number will be returned on all calls to object_id for a given object, and no two active objects will share an id.

Note: that some objects of builtin classes are reused for optimization. This is the case for immediate values and frozen string literals.

::BasicObject implements __id__, ::Kernel implements object_id.

Immediate values are not passed by reference but are passed by value: nil, true, false, Fixnums, Symbols, and some Floats.

Object.new.object_id  == Object.new.object_id  # => false
(21 * 2).object_id    == (21 * 2).object_id    # => true
"hello".object_id     == "hello".object_id     # => false
"hi".freeze.object_id == "hi".freeze.object_id # => true

#private_methods(all = true) ⇒ Array

Returns the list of private methods accessible to obj. If the all parameter is set to false, only those methods in the receiver will be listed.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'class.c', line 1432

VALUE
rb_obj_private_methods(int argc, const VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    return class_instance_method_list(argc, argv, CLASS_OF(obj), 1, ins_methods_priv_i);
}

#protected_methods(all = true) ⇒ Array

Returns the list of protected methods accessible to obj. If the all parameter is set to false, only those methods in the receiver will be listed.

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# File 'class.c', line 1417

VALUE
rb_obj_protected_methods(int argc, const VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    return class_instance_method_list(argc, argv, CLASS_OF(obj), 1, ins_methods_prot_i);
}

#public_method(sym) ⇒ method

Similar to method, searches public method only.

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# File 'proc.c', line 1877

VALUE
rb_obj_public_method(VALUE obj, VALUE vid)
{
    return obj_method(obj, vid, TRUE);
}

#public_methods(all = true) ⇒ Array

Returns the list of public methods accessible to obj. If the all parameter is set to false, only those methods in the receiver will be listed.

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# File 'class.c', line 1447

VALUE
rb_obj_public_methods(int argc, const VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    return class_instance_method_list(argc, argv, CLASS_OF(obj), 1, ins_methods_pub_i);
}

#public_send(symbol [, args...]) ⇒ Object #public_send(string [, args...]) ⇒ Object

Invokes the method identified by symbol, passing it any arguments specified. Unlike send, public_send calls public methods only. When the method is identified by a string, the string is converted to a symbol.

1.public_send(:puts, "hello")  # causes NoMethodError
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# File 'vm_eval.c', line 1116

static VALUE
rb_f_public_send(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE recv)
{
    return send_internal_kw(argc, argv, recv, CALL_PUBLIC);
}

#remove_instance_variable(symbol) ⇒ Object #remove_instance_variable(string) ⇒ Object

Removes the named instance variable from obj, returning that variable's value. ::String arguments are converted to symbols.

class Dummy
  attr_reader :var
  def initialize
    @var = 99
  end
  def remove
    remove_instance_variable(:@var)
  end
end
d = Dummy.new
d.var      #=> 99
d.remove   #=> 99
d.var      #=> nil
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'variable.c', line 1638

VALUE
rb_obj_remove_instance_variable(VALUE obj, VALUE name)
{
    VALUE val = Qnil;
    const ID id = id_for_var(obj, name, an, instance);
    st_data_t n, v;
    struct st_table *iv_index_tbl;
    st_data_t index;

    rb_check_frozen(obj);
    if (!id) {
	goto not_defined;
    }

    switch (BUILTIN_TYPE(obj)) {
      case T_OBJECT:
        iv_index_tbl = ROBJECT_IV_INDEX_TBL(obj);
        if (!iv_index_tbl) break;
        if (!st_lookup(iv_index_tbl, (st_data_t)id, &index)) break;
        if (ROBJECT_NUMIV(obj) <= index) break;
        val = ROBJECT_IVPTR(obj)[index];
        if (val != Qundef) {
            ROBJECT_IVPTR(obj)[index] = Qundef;
            return val;
        }
	break;
      case T_CLASS:
      case T_MODULE:
	n = id;
	if (RCLASS_IV_TBL(obj) && st_delete(RCLASS_IV_TBL(obj), &n, &v)) {
	    return (VALUE)v;
	}
	break;
      default:
	if (FL_TEST(obj, FL_EXIVAR)) {
	    if (generic_ivar_remove(obj, id, &val)) {
		return val;
	    }
	}
	break;
    }

  not_defined:
    rb_name_err_raise("instance variable %1$s not defined",
		      obj, name);
    UNREACHABLE_RETURN(Qnil);
}

#respond_to?(symbol, include_all = false) ⇒ Boolean #respond_to?(string, include_all = false) ⇒ Boolean

Returns true if obj responds to the given method. Private and protected methods are included in the search only if the optional second parameter evaluates to true.

If the method is not implemented, as Process.fork on Windows, File.lchmod on GNU/Linux, etc., false is returned.

If the method is not defined, #respond_to_missing? method is called and the result is returned.

When the method name parameter is given as a string, the string is converted to a symbol.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'vm_method.c', line 2378

static VALUE
obj_respond_to(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE mid, priv;
    ID id;
    rb_execution_context_t *ec = GET_EC();

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &mid, &priv);
    if (!(id = rb_check_id(&mid))) {
	VALUE ret = basic_obj_respond_to_missing(ec, CLASS_OF(obj), obj,
						 rb_to_symbol(mid), priv);
	if (ret == Qundef) ret = Qfalse;
	return ret;
    }
    if (basic_obj_respond_to(ec, obj, id, !RTEST(priv)))
	return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

#respond_to_missing?(symbol, include_all) ⇒ Boolean #respond_to_missing?(string, include_all) ⇒ Boolean

DO NOT USE THIS DIRECTLY.

Hook method to return whether the obj can respond to id method or not.

When the method name parameter is given as a string, the string is converted to a symbol.

See #respond_to?, and the example of ::BasicObject.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'vm_method.c', line 2412

static VALUE
obj_respond_to_missing(VALUE obj, VALUE mid, VALUE priv)
{
    return Qfalse;
}

#send(symbol [, args...]) ⇒ Object #send(string [, args...]) ⇒ Object

Alias for BasicObject#__send__. Invokes the method identified by symbol, passing it any arguments specified. You can use __send__ if the name send clashes with an existing method in obj. When the method is identified by a string, the string is converted to a symbol.

::BasicObject implements __send__, ::Kernel implements send.

class Klass
  def hello(*args)
    "Hello " + args.join(' ')
  end
end
k = Klass.new
k.send :hello, "gentle", "readers"   #=> "Hello gentle readers"

#singleton_classclass

Returns the singleton class of obj. This method creates a new singleton class if obj does not have one.

If obj is nil, true, or false, it returns ::NilClass, ::TrueClass, or ::FalseClass, respectively. If obj is an ::Integer, a ::Float or a ::Symbol, it raises a ::TypeError.

Object.new.singleton_class  #=> #<Class:#<Object:0xb7ce1e24>>
String.singleton_class      #=> #<Class:String>
nil.singleton_class         #=> NilClass
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'object.c', line 321

static VALUE
rb_obj_singleton_class(VALUE obj)
{
    return rb_singleton_class(obj);
}

#singleton_method(sym) ⇒ method

Similar to method, searches singleton method only.

class Demo
  def initialize(n)
    @iv = n
  end
  def hello()
    "Hello, @iv = #{@iv}"
  end
end

k = Demo.new(99)
def k.hi
  "Hi, @iv = #{@iv}"
end
m = k.singleton_method(:hi)
m.call   #=> "Hi, @iv = 99"
m = k.singleton_method(:hello) #=> NameError
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'proc.c', line 1907

VALUE
rb_obj_singleton_method(VALUE obj, VALUE vid)
{
    const rb_method_entry_t *me;
    VALUE klass = rb_singleton_class_get(obj);
    ID id = rb_check_id(&vid);

    if (NIL_P(klass) || NIL_P(klass = RCLASS_ORIGIN(klass))) {
      undef:
	rb_name_err_raise("undefined singleton method `%1$s' for `%2$s'",
			  obj, vid);
    }
    if (!id) {
        VALUE m = mnew_missing_by_name(klass, obj, &vid, FALSE, rb_cMethod);
        if (m) return m;
	goto undef;
    }
    me = rb_method_entry_at(klass, id);
    if (UNDEFINED_METHOD_ENTRY_P(me) ||
	UNDEFINED_REFINED_METHOD_P(me->def)) {
	vid = ID2SYM(id);
	goto undef;
    }
    return mnew_from_me(me, klass, klass, obj, id, rb_cMethod, FALSE);
}

#singleton_methods(all = true) ⇒ Array

Returns an array of the names of singleton methods for obj. If the optional all parameter is true, the list will include methods in modules included in obj. Only public and protected singleton methods are returned.

module Other
  def three() end
end

class Single
  def Single.four() end
end

a = Single.new

def a.one()
end

class << a
  include Other
  def two()
  end
end

Single.singleton_methods    #=> [:four]
a.singleton_methods(false)  #=> [:two, :one]
a.singleton_methods         #=> [:two, :one, :three]
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'class.c', line 1486

VALUE
rb_obj_singleton_methods(int argc, const VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE ary, klass, origin;
    struct method_entry_arg me_arg;
    struct rb_id_table *mtbl;
    int recur = TRUE;

    if (rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1)) recur = RTEST(argv[0]);
    if (RB_TYPE_P(obj, T_CLASS) && FL_TEST(obj, FL_SINGLETON)) {
        rb_singleton_class(obj);
    }
    klass = CLASS_OF(obj);
    origin = RCLASS_ORIGIN(klass);
    me_arg.list = st_init_numtable();
    me_arg.recur = recur;
    if (klass && FL_TEST(klass, FL_SINGLETON)) {
	if ((mtbl = RCLASS_M_TBL(origin)) != 0) rb_id_table_foreach(mtbl, method_entry_i, &me_arg);
	klass = RCLASS_SUPER(klass);
    }
    if (recur) {
	while (klass && (FL_TEST(klass, FL_SINGLETON) || RB_TYPE_P(klass, T_ICLASS))) {
	    if (klass != origin && (mtbl = RCLASS_M_TBL(klass)) != 0) rb_id_table_foreach(mtbl, method_entry_i, &me_arg);
	    klass = RCLASS_SUPER(klass);
	}
    }
    ary = rb_ary_new2(me_arg.list->num_entries);
    st_foreach(me_arg.list, ins_methods_i, ary);
    st_free_table(me_arg.list);

    return ary;
}

#taintObject

Returns object. This method is deprecated and will be removed in Ruby 3.2.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'object.c', line 1230

VALUE
rb_obj_taint(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_warn_deprecated_to_remove("Object#taint", "3.2");
    return obj;
}

#tap {|x| ... } ⇒ Object

Yields self to the block, and then returns self. The primary purpose of this method is to “tap into” a method chain, in order to perform operations on intermediate results within the chain.

(1..10)                  .tap {|x| puts "original: #{x}" }
  .to_a                  .tap {|x| puts "array:    #{x}" }
  .select {|x| x.even? } .tap {|x| puts "evens:    #{x}" }
  .map {|x| x*x }        .tap {|x| puts "squares:  #{x}" }
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'object.c', line 956

VALUE
rb_obj_tap(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_yield(obj);
    return obj;
}

#then {|x| ... } ⇒ Object #yield_self {|x| ... } ⇒ Object
Also known as: #yield_self

Yields self to the block and returns the result of the block.

3.next.then {|x| x**x }.to_s             #=> "256"
"my string".yield_self {|s| s.upcase }   #=> "MY STRING"

Good usage for then is value piping in method chains:

require 'open-uri'
require 'json'

construct_url(arguments).
  then {|url| open(url).read }.
  then {|response| JSON.parse(response) }

When called without block, the method returns ::Enumerator, which can be used, for example, for conditional circuit-breaking:

# meets condition, no-op
1.then.detect(&:odd?)            # => 1
# does not meet condition, drop value
2.then.detect(&:odd?)            # => nil
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'object.c', line 625

static VALUE
rb_obj_yield_self(VALUE obj)
{
    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(obj, 0, 0, rb_obj_size);
    return rb_yield_values2(1, &obj);
}

#to_enum(method = :each, *args) ⇒ Enumerator #enum_for(method = :each, *args) ⇒ Enumerator #to_enum(method = :each, *args) {|*args| ... } ⇒ Enumerator #enum_for(method = :each, *args) {|*args| ... } ⇒ Enumerator
Also known as: #enum_for

Creates a new ::Enumerator which will enumerate by calling #method on obj, passing args if any. What was yielded by method becomes values of enumerator.

If a block is given, it will be used to calculate the size of the enumerator without the need to iterate it (see Enumerator#size).

Examples

str = "xyz"

enum = str.enum_for(:each_byte)
enum.each { |b| puts b }
# => 120
# => 121
# => 122

# protect an array from being modified by some_method
a = [1, 2, 3]
some_method(a.to_enum)

# String#split in block form is more memory-effective:
very_large_string.split("|") { |chunk| return chunk if chunk.include?('DATE') }
# This could be rewritten more idiomatically with to_enum:
very_large_string.to_enum(:split, "|").lazy.grep(/DATE/).first

It is typical to call to_enum when defining methods for a generic ::Enumerable, in case no block is passed.

Here is such an example, with parameter passing and a sizing block:

module Enumerable
  # a generic method to repeat the values of any enumerable
  def repeat(n)
    raise ArgumentError, "#{n} is negative!" if n < 0
    unless block_given?
      return to_enum(__method__, n) do # __method__ is :repeat here
        sz = size     # Call size and multiply by n...
        sz * n if sz  # but return nil if size itself is nil
      end
    end
    each do |*val|
      n.times { yield *val }
    end
  end
end

%i[hello world].repeat(2) { |w| puts w }
  # => Prints 'hello', 'hello', 'world', 'world'
enum = (1..14).repeat(3)
  # => returns an Enumerator when called without a block
enum.first(4) # => [1, 1, 1, 2]
enum.size # => 42
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'enumerator.c', line 359

static VALUE
obj_to_enum(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE enumerator, meth = sym_each;

    if (argc > 0) {
	--argc;
	meth = *argv++;
    }
    enumerator = rb_enumeratorize_with_size(obj, meth, argc, argv, 0);
    if (rb_block_given_p()) {
	enumerator_ptr(enumerator)->size = rb_block_proc();
    }
    return enumerator;
}

#to_sString

Returns a string representing obj. The default #to_s prints the object's class and an encoding of the object id. As a special case, the top-level object that is the initial execution context of Ruby programs returns “main''.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'object.c', line 701

VALUE
rb_any_to_s(VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE str;
    VALUE cname = rb_class_name(CLASS_OF(obj));

    str = rb_sprintf("#<%"PRIsVALUE":%p>", cname, (void*)obj);

    return str;
}

#trustObject

Returns object. This method is deprecated and will be removed in Ruby 3.2.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'object.c', line 1288

VALUE
rb_obj_trust(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_warn_deprecated_to_remove("Object#trust", "3.2");
    return obj;
}

#untaintObject

Returns object. This method is deprecated and will be removed in Ruby 3.2.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'object.c', line 1245

VALUE
rb_obj_untaint(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_warn_deprecated_to_remove("Object#untaint", "3.2");
    return obj;
}

#untrustObject

Returns object. This method is deprecated and will be removed in Ruby 3.2.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'object.c', line 1273

VALUE
rb_obj_untrust(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_warn_deprecated_to_remove("Object#untrust", "3.2");
    return obj;
}

#then {|x| ... } ⇒ Object #yield_self {|x| ... } ⇒ Object

Alias for #then.