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Class: Method

Relationships & Source Files
Inherits: Object
Defined in: proc.c,
proc.c

Overview

Method objects are created by Object#method, and are associated with a particular object (not just with a class). They may be used to invoke the method within the object, and as a block associated with an iterator. They may also be unbound from one object (creating an ::UnboundMethod) and bound to another.

class Thing
  def square(n)
    n*n
  end
end
thing = Thing.new
meth  = thing.method(:square)

meth.call(9)                 #=> 81
[ 1, 2, 3 ].collect(&meth)   #=> [1, 4, 9]

[ 1, 2, 3 ].each(&method(:puts)) #=> prints 1, 2, 3

require 'date'
%w[2017-03-01 2017-03-02].collect(&Date.method(:parse))
#=> [#<Date: 2017-03-01 ((2457814j,0s,0n),+0s,2299161j)>, #<Date: 2017-03-02 ((2457815j,0s,0n),+0s,2299161j)>]

Instance Method Summary

Instance Method Details

#<<(g) ⇒ Proc

Returns a proc that is the composition of this method and the given g. The returned proc takes a variable number of arguments, calls g with them then calls this method with the result.

def f(x)
  x * x
end

f = self.method(:f)
g = proc {|x| x + x }
p (f << g).call(2) #=> 16
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'proc.c', line 3259

static VALUE
rb_method_compose_to_left(VALUE self, VALUE g)
{
    g = to_callable(g);
    self = method_to_proc(self);
    return proc_compose_to_left(self, g);
}

#eql?(other_meth) ⇒ Boolean #==(other_meth) ⇒ Boolean
Also known as: #eql?

Two method objects are equal if they are bound to the same object and refer to the same method definition and their owners are the same class or module.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'proc.c', line 1570

static VALUE
method_eq(VALUE method, VALUE other)
{
    struct METHOD *m1, *m2;
    VALUE klass1, klass2;

    if (!rb_obj_is_method(other))
	return Qfalse;
    if (CLASS_OF(method) != CLASS_OF(other))
	return Qfalse;

    Check_TypedStruct(method, &method_data_type);
    m1 = (struct METHOD *)DATA_PTR(method);
    m2 = (struct METHOD *)DATA_PTR(other);

    klass1 = method_entry_defined_class(m1->me);
    klass2 = method_entry_defined_class(m2->me);

    if (!rb_method_entry_eq(m1->me, m2->me) ||
	klass1 != klass2 ||
	m1->klass != m2->klass ||
	m1->recv != m2->recv) {
	return Qfalse;
    }

    return Qtrue;
}

#call(args, ...) ⇒ Object #[](args, ...) ⇒ Object

Alias for #[]. Invokes the method with obj as the parameter like #call. This allows a method object to be the target of a when clause in a case statement.

require 'prime'

case 1373
when Prime.method(:prime?)
  # ...
end

#>>(g) ⇒ Proc

Returns a proc that is the composition of this method and the given g. The returned proc takes a variable number of arguments, calls g with them then calls this method with the result.

def f(x)
  x * x
end

f = self.method(:f)
g = proc {|x| x + x }
p (f >> g).call(2) #=> 8
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'proc.c', line 3283

static VALUE
rb_method_compose_to_right(VALUE self, VALUE g)
{
    g = to_callable(g);
    self = method_to_proc(self);
    return proc_compose_to_right(self, g);
}

#call(args, ...) ⇒ Object #[](args, ...) ⇒ Object
Also known as: #call, #===

Invokes the meth with the specified arguments, returning the method's return value.

m = 12.method("+")
m.call(3)    #=> 15
m.call(20)   #=> 32
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'proc.c', line 2189

VALUE
rb_method_call(int argc, const VALUE *argv, VALUE method)
{
    VALUE procval = rb_block_given_p() ? rb_block_proc() : Qnil;
    return rb_method_call_with_block(argc, argv, method, procval);
}

#arityInteger

Returns an indication of the number of arguments accepted by a method. Returns a nonnegative integer for methods that take a fixed number of arguments. For Ruby methods that take a variable number of arguments, returns -n-1, where n is the number of required arguments. Keyword arguments will be considered as a single additional argument, that argument being mandatory if any keyword argument is mandatory. For methods written in C, returns -1 if the call takes a variable number of arguments.

class C
  def one;    end
  def two(a); end
  def three(*a);  end
  def four(a, b); end
  def five(a, b, *c);    end
  def six(a, b, *c, &d); end
  def seven(a, b, x:0); end
  def eight(x:, y:); end
  def nine(x:, y:, **z); end
  def ten(*a, x:, y:); end
end
c = C.new
c.method(:one).arity     #=> 0
c.method(:two).arity     #=> 1
c.method(:three).arity   #=> -1
c.method(:four).arity    #=> 2
c.method(:five).arity    #=> -3
c.method(:six).arity     #=> -3
c.method(:seven).arity   #=> -3
c.method(:eight).arity   #=> 1
c.method(:nine).arity    #=> 1
c.method(:ten).arity     #=> -2

"cat".method(:size).arity      #=> 0
"cat".method(:replace).arity   #=> 1
"cat".method(:squeeze).arity   #=> -1
"cat".method(:count).arity     #=> -1
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'proc.c', line 2500

static VALUE
method_arity_m(VALUE method)
{
    int n = method_arity(method);
    return INT2FIX(n);
}

#call(args, ...) ⇒ Object #[](args, ...) ⇒ Object

Alias for #[].

#cloneMethod

Returns a clone of this method.

class A
  def foo
    return "bar"
  end
end

m = A.new.method(:foo)
m.call # => "bar"
n = m.clone.call # => "bar"
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'proc.c', line 2143

static VALUE
method_clone(VALUE self)
{
    VALUE clone;
    struct METHOD *orig, *data;

    TypedData_Get_Struct(self, struct METHOD, &method_data_type, orig);
    clone = TypedData_Make_Struct(CLASS_OF(self), struct METHOD, &method_data_type, data);
    CLONESETUP(clone, self);
    RB_OBJ_WRITE(clone, &data->recv, orig->recv);
    RB_OBJ_WRITE(clone, &data->klass, orig->klass);
    RB_OBJ_WRITE(clone, &data->me, rb_method_entry_clone(orig->me));
    return clone;
}

#curryProc #curry(arity) ⇒ Proc

Returns a curried proc based on the method. When the proc is called with a number of arguments that is lower than the method's arity, then another curried proc is returned. Only when enough arguments have been supplied to satisfy the method signature, will the method actually be called.

The optional arity argument should be supplied when currying methods with variable arguments to determine how many arguments are needed before the method is called.

def foo(a,b,c)
  [a, b, c]
end

proc  = self.method(:foo).curry
proc2 = proc.call(1, 2)          #=> #<Proc>
proc2.call(3)                    #=> [1,2,3]

def vararg(*args)
  args
end

proc = self.method(:vararg).curry(4)
proc2 = proc.call(:x)      #=> #<Proc>
proc3 = proc2.call(:y, :z) #=> #<Proc>
proc3.call(:a)             #=> [:x, :y, :z, :a]
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'proc.c', line 3125

static VALUE
rb_method_curry(int argc, const VALUE *argv, VALUE self)
{
    VALUE proc = method_to_proc(self);
    return proc_curry(argc, argv, proc);
}

#eql?(other_meth) ⇒ Boolean #==(other_meth) ⇒ Boolean

Alias for #==.

#hashInteger

Returns a hash value corresponding to the method object.

See also Object#hash.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'proc.c', line 1607

static VALUE
method_hash(VALUE method)
{
    struct METHOD *m;
    st_index_t hash;

    TypedData_Get_Struct(method, struct METHOD, &method_data_type, m);
    hash = rb_hash_start((st_index_t)m->recv);
    hash = rb_hash_method_entry(hash, m->me);
    hash = rb_hash_end(hash);

    return ST2FIX(hash);
}

#to_sString #inspectString

Alias for #to_s.

#nameSymbol

Returns the name of the method.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'proc.c', line 1672

static VALUE
method_name(VALUE obj)
{
    struct METHOD *data;

    TypedData_Get_Struct(obj, struct METHOD, &method_data_type, data);
    return ID2SYM(data->me->called_id);
}

#original_nameSymbol

Returns the original name of the method.

class C
  def foo; end
  alias bar foo
end
C.instance_method(:bar).original_name # => :foo
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'proc.c', line 1694

static VALUE
method_original_name(VALUE obj)
{
    struct METHOD *data;

    TypedData_Get_Struct(obj, struct METHOD, &method_data_type, data);
    return ID2SYM(data->me->def->original_id);
}

#ownerclass_or_module

Returns the class or module that defines the method. See also #receiver.

(1..3).method(:map).owner #=> Enumerable
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'proc.c', line 1713

static VALUE
method_owner(VALUE obj)
{
    struct METHOD *data;
    TypedData_Get_Struct(obj, struct METHOD, &method_data_type, data);
    return data->me->owner;
}

#parametersArray

Returns the parameter information of this method.

def foo(bar); end
method(:foo).parameters #=> [[:req, :bar]]

def foo(bar, baz, bat, &blk); end
method(:foo).parameters #=> [[:req, :bar], [:req, :baz], [:req, :bat], [:block, :blk]]

def foo(bar, *args); end
method(:foo).parameters #=> [[:req, :bar], [:rest, :args]]

def foo(bar, baz, *args, &blk); end
method(:foo).parameters #=> [[:req, :bar], [:req, :baz], [:rest, :args], [:block, :blk]]
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'proc.c', line 2673

static VALUE
rb_method_parameters(VALUE method)
{
    const rb_iseq_t *iseq = rb_method_iseq(method);
    if (!iseq) {
	return rb_unnamed_parameters(method_arity(method));
    }
    return rb_iseq_parameters(iseq, 0);
}

#receiverObject

Returns the bound receiver of the method object.

(1..3).method(:map).receiver # => 1..3
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'proc.c', line 1656

static VALUE
method_receiver(VALUE obj)
{
    struct METHOD *data;

    TypedData_Get_Struct(obj, struct METHOD, &method_data_type, data);
    return data->recv;
}

#source_locationArray, Integer

Returns the Ruby source filename and line number containing this method or nil if this method was not defined in Ruby (i.e. native).

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'proc.c', line 2648

VALUE
rb_method_location(VALUE method)
{
    return method_def_location(rb_method_def(method));
}

#super_methodMethod

Returns a Method of superclass which would be called when super is used or nil if there is no method on superclass.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'proc.c', line 2836

static VALUE
method_super_method(VALUE method)
{
    const struct METHOD *data;
    VALUE super_class, iclass;
    ID mid;
    const rb_method_entry_t *me;

    TypedData_Get_Struct(method, struct METHOD, &method_data_type, data);
    iclass = data->iclass;
    if (!iclass) return Qnil;
    super_class = RCLASS_SUPER(RCLASS_ORIGIN(iclass));
    mid = data->me->called_id;
    if (!super_class) return Qnil;
    me = (rb_method_entry_t *)rb_callable_method_entry_with_refinements(super_class, mid, &iclass);
    if (!me) return Qnil;
    return mnew_internal(me, me->owner, iclass, data->recv, mid, rb_obj_class(method), FALSE, FALSE);
}

#to_procProc

Returns a ::Proc object corresponding to this method.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'proc.c', line 2807

static VALUE
method_to_proc(VALUE method)
{
    VALUE procval;
    rb_proc_t *proc;

    /*
     * class Method
     *   def to_proc
     *     lambda{|*args|
     *       self.call(*args)
     *     }
     *   end
     * end
     */
    procval = rb_iterate(mlambda, 0, bmcall, method);
    GetProcPtr(procval, proc);
    proc->is_from_method = 1;
    return procval;
}

#to_sString #inspectString
Also known as: #inspect

Returns a human-readable description of the underlying method.

"cat".method(:count).inspect   #=> "#<Method: String#count>"
(1..3).method(:map).inspect    #=> "#<Method: Range(Enumerable)#map>"

In the latter case, the method description includes the “owner” of the original method (::Enumerable module, which is included into ::Range).

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'proc.c', line 2697

static VALUE
method_inspect(VALUE method)
{
    struct METHOD *data;
    VALUE str;
    const char *sharp = "#";
    VALUE mklass;
    VALUE defined_class;

    TypedData_Get_Struct(method, struct METHOD, &method_data_type, data);
    str = rb_sprintf("#<% "PRIsVALUE": ", rb_obj_class(method));
    OBJ_INFECT_RAW(str, method);

    mklass = data->klass;

    if (data->me->def->type == VM_METHOD_TYPE_ALIAS) {
	defined_class = data->me->def->body.alias.original_me->owner;
    }
    else {
	defined_class = method_entry_defined_class(data->me);
    }

    if (RB_TYPE_P(defined_class, T_ICLASS)) {
	defined_class = RBASIC_CLASS(defined_class);
    }

    if (FL_TEST(mklass, FL_SINGLETON)) {
	VALUE v = rb_ivar_get(mklass, attached);

	if (data->recv == Qundef) {
	    rb_str_buf_append(str, rb_inspect(mklass));
	}
	else if (data->recv == v) {
	    rb_str_buf_append(str, rb_inspect(v));
	    sharp = ".";
	}
	else {
	    rb_str_buf_append(str, rb_inspect(data->recv));
	    rb_str_buf_cat2(str, "(");
	    rb_str_buf_append(str, rb_inspect(v));
	    rb_str_buf_cat2(str, ")");
	    sharp = ".";
	}
    }
    else {
	rb_str_buf_append(str, rb_inspect(mklass));
	if (defined_class != mklass) {
	    rb_str_catf(str, "(% "PRIsVALUE")", defined_class);
	}
    }
    rb_str_buf_cat2(str, sharp);
    rb_str_append(str, rb_id2str(data->me->called_id));
    if (data->me->called_id != data->me->def->original_id) {
	rb_str_catf(str, "(%"PRIsVALUE")",
		    rb_id2str(data->me->def->original_id));
    }
    if (data->me->def->type == VM_METHOD_TYPE_NOTIMPLEMENTED) {
        rb_str_buf_cat2(str, " (not-implemented)");
    }

    // parameter information
    // TODO

    { // source location
        VALUE loc = rb_method_location(method);
        if (!NIL_P(loc)) {
            rb_str_catf(str, " %"PRIsVALUE":%"PRIsVALUE,
                        RARRAY_AREF(loc, 0), RARRAY_AREF(loc, 1));
        }
    }

    rb_str_buf_cat2(str, ">");

    return str;
}

#unbindMethod

Dissociates meth from its current receiver. The resulting ::UnboundMethod can subsequently be bound to a new object of the same class (see ::UnboundMethod).

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'proc.c', line 1630

static VALUE
method_unbind(VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE method;
    struct METHOD *orig, *data;

    TypedData_Get_Struct(obj, struct METHOD, &method_data_type, orig);
    method = TypedData_Make_Struct(rb_cUnboundMethod, struct METHOD,
				   &method_data_type, data);
    RB_OBJ_WRITE(method, &data->recv, Qundef);
    RB_OBJ_WRITE(method, &data->klass, orig->klass);
    RB_OBJ_WRITE(method, &data->me, rb_method_entry_clone(orig->me));
    OBJ_INFECT(method, obj);

    return method;
}