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Module: Process

Relationships & Source Files
Namespace Children
Modules:
GID, Sys, UID
Classes:
Defined in: process.c,
process.c,
ruby.c,
signal.c

Overview

::Module to handle processes.

Constant Summary

Class Attribute Summary

Class Method Summary

Class Attribute Details

.euidInteger (rw, mod_func) UID.eidInteger Sys.geteuidInteger

Returns the effective user ID for this process.

Process.euid   #=> 501
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 6745

static VALUE
proc_geteuid(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_uid_t euid = geteuid();
    return UIDT2NUM(euid);
}

.euid=(user) (rw, mod_func)

Sets the effective user ID for this process. Not available on all platforms.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 6784

static VALUE
proc_seteuid_m(VALUE mod, VALUE euid)
{
    check_uid_switch();
    proc_seteuid(OBJ2UID(euid));
    return euid;
}

.gidInteger (rw, mod_func) GID.ridInteger Sys.getgidInteger

Returns the (real) group ID for this process.

Process.gid   #=> 500
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 6179

static VALUE
proc_getgid(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_gid_t gid = getgid();
    return GIDT2NUM(gid);
}

.gid=(integer) ⇒ Integer (rw, mod_func)

Sets the group ID for this process.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 6195

static VALUE
proc_setgid(VALUE obj, VALUE id)
{
    rb_gid_t gid;

    check_gid_switch();

    gid = OBJ2GID(id);
#if defined(HAVE_SETRESGID)
    if (setresgid(gid, -1, -1) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined HAVE_SETREGID
    if (setregid(gid, -1) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined HAVE_SETRGID
    if (setrgid(gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined HAVE_SETGID
    {
	if (getegid() == gid) {
	    if (setgid(gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
	}
	else {
	    rb_notimplement();
	}
    }
#endif
    return GIDT2NUM(gid);
}

.groupsArray (rw, mod_func)

Get an ::Array of the group IDs in the supplemental group access list for this process.

Process.groups   #=> [27, 6, 10, 11]

Note that this method is just a wrapper of getgroups(2). This means that the following characteristics of the result completely depend on your system:

  • the result is sorted

  • the result includes effective GIDs

  • the result does not include duplicated GIDs

You can make sure to get a sorted unique ::Process::GID list of the current process by this expression:

Process.groups.uniq.sort
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 6299

static VALUE
proc_getgroups(VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE ary, tmp;
    int i, ngroups;
    rb_gid_t *groups;

    ngroups = getgroups(0, NULL);
    if (ngroups == -1)
	rb_sys_fail(0);

    groups = ALLOCV_N(rb_gid_t, tmp, ngroups);

    ngroups = getgroups(ngroups, groups);
    if (ngroups == -1)
	rb_sys_fail(0);

    ary = rb_ary_new();
    for (i = 0; i < ngroups; i++)
	rb_ary_push(ary, GIDT2NUM(groups[i]));

    ALLOCV_END(tmp);

    return ary;
}

.groups=(array) ⇒ Array (rw, mod_func)

Set the supplemental group access list to the given ::Array of group IDs.

Process.groups   #=> [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 11, 20, 26, 27]
Process.groups = [27, 6, 10, 11]   #=> [27, 6, 10, 11]
Process.groups   #=> [27, 6, 10, 11]
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 6343

static VALUE
proc_setgroups(VALUE obj, VALUE ary)
{
    int ngroups, i;
    rb_gid_t *groups;
    VALUE tmp;
    PREPARE_GETGRNAM;

    Check_Type(ary, T_ARRAY);

    ngroups = RARRAY_LENINT(ary);
    if (ngroups > maxgroups())
	rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "too many groups, %d max", maxgroups());

    groups = ALLOCV_N(rb_gid_t, tmp, ngroups);

    for (i = 0; i < ngroups; i++) {
	VALUE g = RARRAY_AREF(ary, i);

	groups[i] = OBJ2GID1(g);
    }
    FINISH_GETGRNAM;

    if (setgroups(ngroups, groups) == -1) /* ngroups <= maxgroups */
	rb_sys_fail(0);

    ALLOCV_END(tmp);

    return proc_getgroups(obj);
}

.maxgroupsInteger (rw, mod_func)

Returns the maximum number of gids allowed in the supplemental group access list.

Process.maxgroups   #=> 32
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 6419

static VALUE
proc_getmaxgroups(VALUE obj)
{
    return INT2FIX(maxgroups());
}

.maxgroups=(integer) ⇒ Integer (rw, mod_func)

Sets the maximum number of gids allowed in the supplemental group access list.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 6437

static VALUE
proc_setmaxgroups(VALUE obj, VALUE val)
{
    int ngroups = FIX2INT(val);
    int ngroups_max = get_sc_ngroups_max();

    if (ngroups <= 0)
	rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "maxgroups %d shold be positive", ngroups);

    if (ngroups > RB_MAX_GROUPS)
	ngroups = RB_MAX_GROUPS;

    if (ngroups_max > 0 && ngroups > ngroups_max)
	ngroups = ngroups_max;

    _maxgroups = ngroups;

    return INT2FIX(_maxgroups);
}

.pidInteger (readonly, mod_func)

Alias for $$.

.uidInteger (rw, mod_func) UID.ridInteger Sys.getuidInteger

Returns the (real) user ID of this process.

Process.uid   #=> 501
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 5776

static VALUE
proc_getuid(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_uid_t uid = getuid();
    return UIDT2NUM(uid);
}

.uid=(user) ⇒ Numeric (rw, mod_func)

Sets the (user) user ID for this process. Not available on all platforms.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 5793

static VALUE
proc_setuid(VALUE obj, VALUE id)
{
    rb_uid_t uid;

    check_uid_switch();

    uid = OBJ2UID(id);
#if defined(HAVE_SETRESUID)
    if (setresuid(uid, -1, -1) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined HAVE_SETREUID
    if (setreuid(uid, -1) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined HAVE_SETRUID
    if (setruid(uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined HAVE_SETUID
    {
	if (geteuid() == uid) {
	    if (setuid(uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
	}
	else {
	    rb_notimplement();
	}
    }
#endif
    return id;
}

Class Method Details

.abort .abort([msg])

Alias for Kernel.abort.

.argv0frozen_string (mod_func)

Returns the name of the script being executed. The value is not affected by assigning a new value to $0.

This method first appeared in Ruby 2.1 to serve as a global variable free means to get the script name.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'ruby.c', line 2193

static VALUE
proc_argv0(VALUE process)
{
    return rb_orig_progname;
}

.clock_getres(clock_id[, unit]) ⇒ Numeric (mod_func)

Returns the time resolution returned by POSIX clock_getres() function.

clock_id specifies a kind of clock. See the document of .clock_gettime for details.

clock_id can be a symbol as .clock_gettime. However the result may not be accurate. For example, Process.clock_getres(:GETTIMEOFDAY_BASED_CLOCK_REALTIME) returns 1.0e-06 which means 1 microsecond, but actual resolution can be more coarse.

If the given clock_id is not supported, Errno::EINVAL is raised.

unit specifies a type of the return value. clock_getres accepts unit as .clock_gettime. The default value, :float_second, is also same as .clock_gettime.

clock_getres also accepts :hertz as unit. :hertz means a the reciprocal of :float_second.

:hertz can be used to obtain the exact value of the clock ticks per second for times() function and CLOCKS_PER_SEC for clock() function.

Process.clock_getres(:TIMES_BASED_CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID, :hertz) returns the clock ticks per second.

Process.clock_getres(:CLOCK_BASED_CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID, :hertz) returns CLOCKS_PER_SEC.

p Process.clock_getres(Process::CLOCK_MONOTONIC)
#=> 1.0e-09
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 7933

VALUE
rb_clock_getres(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    struct timetick tt;
    timetick_int_t numerators[2];
    timetick_int_t denominators[2];
    int num_numerators = 0;
    int num_denominators = 0;

    VALUE unit = (rb_check_arity(argc, 1, 2) == 2) ? argv[1] : Qnil;
    VALUE clk_id = argv[0];

    if (SYMBOL_P(clk_id)) {
#ifdef RUBY_GETTIMEOFDAY_BASED_CLOCK_REALTIME
        if (clk_id == RUBY_GETTIMEOFDAY_BASED_CLOCK_REALTIME) {
            tt.giga_count = 0;
            tt.count = 1000;
            denominators[num_denominators++] = 1000000000;
            goto success;
        }
#endif

#ifdef RUBY_TIME_BASED_CLOCK_REALTIME
        if (clk_id == RUBY_TIME_BASED_CLOCK_REALTIME) {
            tt.giga_count = 1;
            tt.count = 0;
            denominators[num_denominators++] = 1000000000;
            goto success;
        }
#endif

#ifdef RUBY_TIMES_BASED_CLOCK_MONOTONIC
        if (clk_id == RUBY_TIMES_BASED_CLOCK_MONOTONIC) {
            tt.count = 1;
            tt.giga_count = 0;
            denominators[num_denominators++] = get_clk_tck();
            goto success;
        }
#endif

#ifdef RUBY_GETRUSAGE_BASED_CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID
        if (clk_id == RUBY_GETRUSAGE_BASED_CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID) {
            tt.giga_count = 0;
            tt.count = 1000;
            denominators[num_denominators++] = 1000000000;
            goto success;
        }
#endif

#ifdef RUBY_TIMES_BASED_CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID
        if (clk_id == RUBY_TIMES_BASED_CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID) {
            tt.count = 1;
            tt.giga_count = 0;
            denominators[num_denominators++] = get_clk_tck();
            goto success;
        }
#endif

#ifdef RUBY_CLOCK_BASED_CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID
        if (clk_id == RUBY_CLOCK_BASED_CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID) {
            tt.count = 1;
            tt.giga_count = 0;
            denominators[num_denominators++] = CLOCKS_PER_SEC;
            goto success;
        }
#endif

#ifdef RUBY_MACH_ABSOLUTE_TIME_BASED_CLOCK_MONOTONIC
        if (clk_id == RUBY_MACH_ABSOLUTE_TIME_BASED_CLOCK_MONOTONIC) {
	    const mach_timebase_info_data_t *info = get_mach_timebase_info();
            tt.count = 1;
            tt.giga_count = 0;
            numerators[num_numerators++] = info->numer;
            denominators[num_denominators++] = info->denom;
            denominators[num_denominators++] = 1000000000;
            goto success;
        }
#endif
    }
    else {
#if defined(HAVE_CLOCK_GETRES)
        struct timespec ts;
        clockid_t c = NUM2CLOCKID(clk_id);
        int ret = clock_getres(c, &ts);
        if (ret == -1)
            rb_sys_fail("clock_getres");
        tt.count = (int32_t)ts.tv_nsec;
        tt.giga_count = ts.tv_sec;
        denominators[num_denominators++] = 1000000000;
        goto success;
#endif
    }
    /* EINVAL emulates clock_getres behavior when clock_id is invalid. */
    rb_syserr_fail(EINVAL, 0);

  success:
    if (unit == ID2SYM(id_hertz)) {
        return timetick2dblnum_reciprocal(&tt, numerators, num_numerators, denominators, num_denominators);
    }
    else {
        return make_clock_result(&tt, numerators, num_numerators, denominators, num_denominators, unit);
    }
}

.clock_gettime(clock_id[, unit]) ⇒ Numeric (mod_func)

Returns a time returned by POSIX clock_gettime() function.

p Process.clock_gettime(Process::CLOCK_MONOTONIC)
#=> 896053.968060096

clock_id specifies a kind of clock. It is specified as a constant which begins with Process::CLOCK_ such as CLOCK_REALTIME and CLOCK_MONOTONIC.

The supported constants depends on OS and version. Ruby provides following types of clock_id if available.

CLOCK_REALTIME

SUSv2 to 4, Linux 2.5.63, FreeBSD 3.0, NetBSD 2.0, OpenBSD 2.1, macOS 10.12

CLOCK_MONOTONIC

SUSv3 to 4, Linux 2.5.63, FreeBSD 3.0, NetBSD 2.0, OpenBSD 3.4, macOS 10.12

CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID

SUSv3 to 4, Linux 2.5.63, OpenBSD 5.4, macOS 10.12

CLOCK_THREAD_CPUTIME_ID

SUSv3 to 4, Linux 2.5.63, FreeBSD 7.1, OpenBSD 5.4, macOS 10.12

CLOCK_VIRTUAL

FreeBSD 3.0, OpenBSD 2.1

CLOCK_PROF

FreeBSD 3.0, OpenBSD 2.1

CLOCK_REALTIME_FAST

FreeBSD 8.1

CLOCK_REALTIME_PRECISE

FreeBSD 8.1

CLOCK_REALTIME_COARSE

Linux 2.6.32

CLOCK_REALTIME_ALARM

Linux 3.0

CLOCK_MONOTONIC_FAST

FreeBSD 8.1

CLOCK_MONOTONIC_PRECISE

FreeBSD 8.1

CLOCK_MONOTONIC_COARSE

Linux 2.6.32

CLOCK_MONOTONIC_RAW

Linux 2.6.28, macOS 10.12

CLOCK_MONOTONIC_RAW_APPROX

macOS 10.12

CLOCK_BOOTTIME

Linux 2.6.39

CLOCK_BOOTTIME_ALARM

Linux 3.0

CLOCK_UPTIME

FreeBSD 7.0, OpenBSD 5.5

CLOCK_UPTIME_FAST

FreeBSD 8.1

CLOCK_UPTIME_RAW

macOS 10.12

CLOCK_UPTIME_RAW_APPROX

macOS 10.12

CLOCK_UPTIME_PRECISE

FreeBSD 8.1

CLOCK_SECOND

FreeBSD 8.1

CLOCK_TAI

Linux 3.10

Note that SUS stands for Single Unix Specification. SUS contains POSIX and clock_gettime is defined in the POSIX part. SUS defines CLOCK_REALTIME mandatory but CLOCK_MONOTONIC, CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID and CLOCK_THREAD_CPUTIME_ID are optional.

Also, several symbols are accepted as clock_id. There are emulations for clock_gettime().

For example, CLOCK_REALTIME is defined as :GETTIMEOFDAY_BASED_CLOCK_REALTIME when clock_gettime() is not available.

Emulations for CLOCK_REALTIME:

:GETTIMEOFDAY_BASED_CLOCK_REALTIME

Use gettimeofday() defined by SUS. (SUSv4 obsoleted it, though.) The resolution is 1 microsecond.

:TIME_BASED_CLOCK_REALTIME

Use time() defined by ISO C. The resolution is 1 second.

Emulations for CLOCK_MONOTONIC:

:MACH_ABSOLUTE_TIME_BASED_CLOCK_MONOTONIC

Use mach_absolute_time(), available on Darwin. The resolution is CPU dependent.

:TIMES_BASED_CLOCK_MONOTONIC

Use the result value of times() defined by POSIX. POSIX defines it as “times() shall return the elapsed real time, in clock ticks, since an arbitrary point in the past (for example, system start-up time)”. For example, GNU/Linux returns a value based on jiffies and it is monotonic. However, 4.4BSD uses gettimeofday() and it is not monotonic. (FreeBSD uses clock_gettime(CLOCK_MONOTONIC) instead, though.) The resolution is the clock tick. “getconf CLK_TCK” command shows the clock ticks per second. (The clock ticks per second is defined by HZ macro in older systems.) If it is 100 and clock_t is 32 bits integer type, the resolution is 10 millisecond and cannot represent over 497 days.

Emulations for CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID:

:GETRUSAGE_BASED_CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID

Use getrusage() defined by SUS. getrusage() is used with RUSAGE_SELF to obtain the time only for the calling process (excluding the time for child processes). The result is addition of user time (ru_utime) and system time (ru_stime). The resolution is 1 microsecond.

:TIMES_BASED_CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID

Use times() defined by POSIX. The result is addition of user time (tms_utime) and system time (tms_stime). tms_cutime and tms_cstime are ignored to exclude the time for child processes. The resolution is the clock tick. “getconf CLK_TCK” command shows the clock ticks per second. (The clock ticks per second is defined by HZ macro in older systems.) If it is 100, the resolution is 10 millisecond.

:CLOCK_BASED_CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID

Use clock() defined by ISO C. The resolution is 1/CLOCKS_PER_SEC. CLOCKS_PER_SEC is the C-level macro defined by time.h. SUS defines CLOCKS_PER_SEC is 1000000. Non-Unix systems may define it a different value, though. If CLOCKS_PER_SEC is 1000000 as SUS, the resolution is 1 microsecond. If CLOCKS_PER_SEC is 1000000 and clock_t is 32 bits integer type, it cannot represent over 72 minutes.

If the given clock_id is not supported, Errno::EINVAL is raised.

unit specifies a type of the return value.

:float_second

number of seconds as a float (default)

:float_millisecond

number of milliseconds as a float

:float_microsecond

number of microseconds as a float

:second

number of seconds as an integer

:millisecond

number of milliseconds as an integer

:microsecond

number of microseconds as an integer

:nanosecond

number of nanoseconds as an integer

The underlying function, clock_gettime(), returns a number of nanoseconds. ::Float object (IEEE 754 double) is not enough to represent the return value for CLOCK_REALTIME. If the exact nanoseconds value is required, use :nanoseconds as the unit.

The origin (zero) of the returned value varies. For example, system start up time, process start up time, the Epoch, etc.

The origin in CLOCK_REALTIME is defined as the Epoch (1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC). But some systems count leap seconds and others doesn't. So the result can be interpreted differently across systems. Time.now is recommended over CLOCK_REALTIME.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 7736

VALUE
rb_clock_gettime(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    int ret;

    struct timetick tt;
    timetick_int_t numerators[2];
    timetick_int_t denominators[2];
    int num_numerators = 0;
    int num_denominators = 0;

    VALUE unit = (rb_check_arity(argc, 1, 2) == 2) ? argv[1] : Qnil;
    VALUE clk_id = argv[0];

    if (SYMBOL_P(clk_id)) {
        /*
         * Non-clock_gettime clocks are provided by symbol clk_id.
         */
#ifdef HAVE_GETTIMEOFDAY
        /*
         * GETTIMEOFDAY_BASED_CLOCK_REALTIME is used for
         * CLOCK_REALTIME if clock_gettime is not available.
         */
#define RUBY_GETTIMEOFDAY_BASED_CLOCK_REALTIME ID2SYM(id_GETTIMEOFDAY_BASED_CLOCK_REALTIME)
        if (clk_id == RUBY_GETTIMEOFDAY_BASED_CLOCK_REALTIME) {
            struct timeval tv;
            ret = gettimeofday(&tv, 0);
            if (ret != 0)
                rb_sys_fail("gettimeofday");
            tt.giga_count = tv.tv_sec;
            tt.count = (int32_t)tv.tv_usec * 1000;
            denominators[num_denominators++] = 1000000000;
            goto success;
        }
#endif

#define RUBY_TIME_BASED_CLOCK_REALTIME ID2SYM(id_TIME_BASED_CLOCK_REALTIME)
        if (clk_id == RUBY_TIME_BASED_CLOCK_REALTIME) {
            time_t t;
            t = time(NULL);
            if (t == (time_t)-1)
                rb_sys_fail("time");
            tt.giga_count = t;
            tt.count = 0;
            denominators[num_denominators++] = 1000000000;
            goto success;
        }

#ifdef HAVE_TIMES
#define RUBY_TIMES_BASED_CLOCK_MONOTONIC \
        ID2SYM(id_TIMES_BASED_CLOCK_MONOTONIC)
        if (clk_id == RUBY_TIMES_BASED_CLOCK_MONOTONIC) {
            struct tms buf;
            clock_t c;
            unsigned_clock_t uc;
            c = times(&buf);
            if (c ==  (clock_t)-1)
                rb_sys_fail("times");
            uc = (unsigned_clock_t)c;
            tt.count = (int32_t)(uc % 1000000000);
            tt.giga_count = (uc / 1000000000);
            denominators[num_denominators++] = get_clk_tck();
            goto success;
        }
#endif

#ifdef RUSAGE_SELF
#define RUBY_GETRUSAGE_BASED_CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID \
        ID2SYM(id_GETRUSAGE_BASED_CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID)
        if (clk_id == RUBY_GETRUSAGE_BASED_CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID) {
            struct rusage usage;
            int32_t usec;
            ret = getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF, &usage);
            if (ret != 0)
                rb_sys_fail("getrusage");
            tt.giga_count = usage.ru_utime.tv_sec + usage.ru_stime.tv_sec;
            usec = (int32_t)(usage.ru_utime.tv_usec + usage.ru_stime.tv_usec);
            if (1000000 <= usec) {
                tt.giga_count++;
                usec -= 1000000;
            }
            tt.count = usec * 1000;
            denominators[num_denominators++] = 1000000000;
            goto success;
        }
#endif

#ifdef HAVE_TIMES
#define RUBY_TIMES_BASED_CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID \
        ID2SYM(id_TIMES_BASED_CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID)
        if (clk_id == RUBY_TIMES_BASED_CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID) {
            struct tms buf;
            unsigned_clock_t utime, stime;
            if (times(&buf) ==  (clock_t)-1)
                rb_sys_fail("times");
            utime = (unsigned_clock_t)buf.tms_utime;
            stime = (unsigned_clock_t)buf.tms_stime;
            tt.count = (int32_t)((utime % 1000000000) + (stime % 1000000000));
            tt.giga_count = (utime / 1000000000) + (stime / 1000000000);
            if (1000000000 <= tt.count) {
                tt.count -= 1000000000;
                tt.giga_count++;
            }
            denominators[num_denominators++] = get_clk_tck();
            goto success;
        }
#endif

#define RUBY_CLOCK_BASED_CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID \
        ID2SYM(id_CLOCK_BASED_CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID)
        if (clk_id == RUBY_CLOCK_BASED_CLOCK_PROCESS_CPUTIME_ID) {
            clock_t c;
            unsigned_clock_t uc;
            errno = 0;
            c = clock();
            if (c == (clock_t)-1)
                rb_sys_fail("clock");
            uc = (unsigned_clock_t)c;
            tt.count = (int32_t)(uc % 1000000000);
            tt.giga_count = uc / 1000000000;
            denominators[num_denominators++] = CLOCKS_PER_SEC;
            goto success;
        }

#ifdef __APPLE__
#define RUBY_MACH_ABSOLUTE_TIME_BASED_CLOCK_MONOTONIC ID2SYM(id_MACH_ABSOLUTE_TIME_BASED_CLOCK_MONOTONIC)
        if (clk_id == RUBY_MACH_ABSOLUTE_TIME_BASED_CLOCK_MONOTONIC) {
	    const mach_timebase_info_data_t *info = get_mach_timebase_info();
            uint64_t t = mach_absolute_time();
            tt.count = (int32_t)(t % 1000000000);
            tt.giga_count = t / 1000000000;
            numerators[num_numerators++] = info->numer;
            denominators[num_denominators++] = info->denom;
            denominators[num_denominators++] = 1000000000;
            goto success;
        }
#endif
    }
    else {
#if defined(HAVE_CLOCK_GETTIME)
        struct timespec ts;
        clockid_t c;
        c = NUM2CLOCKID(clk_id);
        ret = clock_gettime(c, &ts);
        if (ret == -1)
            rb_sys_fail("clock_gettime");
        tt.count = (int32_t)ts.tv_nsec;
        tt.giga_count = ts.tv_sec;
        denominators[num_denominators++] = 1000000000;
        goto success;
#endif
    }
    /* EINVAL emulates clock_gettime behavior when clock_id is invalid. */
    rb_syserr_fail(EINVAL, 0);

  success:
    return make_clock_result(&tt, numerators, num_numerators, denominators, num_denominators, unit);
}

.daemon() ⇒ 0 (mod_func) .daemon(nochdir = nil, noclose = nil) ⇒ 0

Detach the process from controlling terminal and run in the background as system daemon. Unless the argument nochdir is true (i.e. non false), it changes the current working directory to the root (“/”). Unless the argument noclose is true, daemon() will redirect standard input, standard output and standard error to /dev/null. Return zero on success, or raise one of Errno.*.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 6477

static VALUE
proc_daemon(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    int n, nochdir = FALSE, noclose = FALSE;

    switch (rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 2)) {
      case 2: noclose = RTEST(argv[1]);
      case 1: nochdir = RTEST(argv[0]);
    }

    prefork();
    n = rb_daemon(nochdir, noclose);
    if (n < 0) rb_sys_fail("daemon");
    return INT2FIX(n);
}

.detach(pid) ⇒ Thread (mod_func)

Some operating systems retain the status of terminated child processes until the parent collects that status (normally using some variant of wait()). If the parent never collects this status, the child stays around as a zombie process. detach prevents this by setting up a separate Ruby thread whose sole job is to reap the status of the process pid when it terminates. Use #detach only when you do not intend to explicitly wait for the child to terminate.

The waiting thread returns the exit status of the detached process when it terminates, so you can use Thread#join to know the result. If specified pid is not a valid child process ID, the thread returns nil immediately.

The waiting thread has #pid method which returns the pid.

In this first example, we don't reap the first child process, so it appears as a zombie in the process status display.

p1 = fork { sleep 0.1 }
p2 = fork { sleep 0.2 }
Process.waitpid(p2)
sleep 2
system("ps -ho pid,state -p #{p1}")

produces:

27389 Z

In the next example, detach is used to reap the child automatically.

p1 = fork { sleep 0.1 }
p2 = fork { sleep 0.2 }
Process.detach(p1)
Process.waitpid(p2)
sleep 2
system("ps -ho pid,state -p #{p1}")

(produces no output)

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 1451

static VALUE
proc_detach(VALUE obj, VALUE pid)
{
    return rb_detach_process(NUM2PIDT(pid));
}

.egidInteger (mod_func) GID.eidInteger Sys.geteidInteger

Returns the effective group ID for this process. Not available on all platforms.

Process.egid   #=> 500
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 6869

static VALUE
proc_getegid(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_gid_t egid = getegid();

    return GIDT2NUM(egid);
}

.egid=(integer) ⇒ Integer (mod_func)

Sets the effective group ID for this process. Not available on all platforms.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 6886

static VALUE
proc_setegid(VALUE obj, VALUE egid)
{
#if defined(HAVE_SETRESGID) || defined(HAVE_SETREGID) || defined(HAVE_SETEGID) || defined(HAVE_SETGID)
    rb_gid_t gid;
#endif

    check_gid_switch();

#if defined(HAVE_SETRESGID) || defined(HAVE_SETREGID) || defined(HAVE_SETEGID) || defined(HAVE_SETGID)
    gid = OBJ2GID(egid);
#endif

#if defined(HAVE_SETRESGID)
    if (setresgid(-1, gid, -1) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined HAVE_SETREGID
    if (setregid(-1, gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined HAVE_SETEGID
    if (setegid(gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined HAVE_SETGID
    if (gid == getgid()) {
	if (setgid(gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    }
    else {
	rb_notimplement();
    }
#else
    rb_notimplement();
#endif
    return egid;
}

.exec([env,][,options])

Alias for Kernel.exec.

.exit(status = true) .exit(status = true)

Alias for Kernel.exit.

.exit!(status = false)

Alias for Kernel.exit!.

.forkInteger? .forkInteger?

Alias for Kernel.fork.

.getpgid(pid) ⇒ Integer (mod_func)

Returns the process group ID for the given process id. Not available on all platforms.

Process.getpgid(Process.ppid())   #=> 25527
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 4928

static VALUE
proc_getpgid(VALUE obj, VALUE pid)
{
    rb_pid_t i;

    i = getpgid(NUM2PIDT(pid));
    if (i < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    return PIDT2NUM(i);
}

.getpgrpInteger (mod_func)

Returns the process group ID for this process. Not available on all platforms.

Process.getpgid(0)   #=> 25527
Process.getpgrp      #=> 25527
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 4869

static VALUE
proc_getpgrp(void)
{
    rb_pid_t pgrp;

#if defined(HAVE_GETPGRP) && defined(GETPGRP_VOID)
    pgrp = getpgrp();
    if (pgrp < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    return PIDT2NUM(pgrp);
#else /* defined(HAVE_GETPGID) */
    pgrp = getpgid(0);
    if (pgrp < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    return PIDT2NUM(pgrp);
#endif
}

.getpriority(kind, integer) ⇒ Integer (mod_func)

Gets the scheduling priority for specified process, process group, or user. kind indicates the kind of entity to find: one of PRIO_PGRP, PRIO_USER, or PRIO_PROCESS. integer is an id indicating the particular process, process group, or user (an id of 0 means current). Lower priorities are more favorable for scheduling. Not available on all platforms.

Process.getpriority(Process::PRIO_USER, 0)      #=> 19
Process.getpriority(Process::PRIO_PROCESS, 0)   #=> 19
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 5074

static VALUE
proc_getpriority(VALUE obj, VALUE which, VALUE who)
{
    int prio, iwhich, iwho;

    iwhich = NUM2INT(which);
    iwho   = NUM2INT(who);

    errno = 0;
    prio = getpriority(iwhich, iwho);
    if (errno) rb_sys_fail(0);
    return INT2FIX(prio);
}

.getrlimit(resource) ⇒ Array, max_limit (mod_func)

Gets the resource limit of the process. cur_limit means current (soft) limit and max_limit means maximum (hard) limit.

resource indicates the kind of resource to limit. It is specified as a symbol such as :CORE, a string such as "CORE" or a constant such as RLIMIT_CORE. See .setrlimit for details.

cur_limit and max_limit may be RLIM_INFINITY, RLIM_SAVED_MAX or RLIM_SAVED_CUR. See .setrlimit and the system getrlimit(2) manual for details.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 5365

static VALUE
proc_getrlimit(VALUE obj, VALUE resource)
{
    struct rlimit rlim;

    if (getrlimit(rlimit_resource_type(resource), &rlim) < 0) {
	rb_sys_fail("getrlimit");
    }
    return rb_assoc_new(RLIM2NUM(rlim.rlim_cur), RLIM2NUM(rlim.rlim_max));
}

.getsid() ⇒ Integer (mod_func) .getsid(pid) ⇒ Integer

Returns the session ID for the given process id. If not given, return current process sid. Not available on all platforms.

Process.getsid()                #=> 27422
Process.getsid(0)               #=> 27422
Process.getsid(Process.pid())   #=> 27422
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 4980

static VALUE
proc_getsid(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    rb_pid_t sid;
    rb_pid_t pid = 0;

    if (rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1) == 1 && !NIL_P(argv[0]))
	pid = NUM2PIDT(argv[0]);

    sid = getsid(pid);
    if (sid < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    return PIDT2NUM(sid);
}

.initgroups(username, gid) ⇒ Array (mod_func)

Initializes the supplemental group access list by reading the system group database and using all groups of which the given user is a member. The group with the specified gid is also added to the list. Returns the resulting ::Array of the gids of all the groups in the supplementary group access list. Not available on all platforms.

Process.groups   #=> [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 11, 20, 26, 27]
Process.initgroups( "mgranger", 30 )   #=> [30, 6, 10, 11]
Process.groups   #=> [30, 6, 10, 11]
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 6396

static VALUE
proc_initgroups(VALUE obj, VALUE uname, VALUE base_grp)
{
    if (initgroups(StringValueCStr(uname), OBJ2GID(base_grp)) != 0) {
	rb_sys_fail(0);
    }
    return proc_getgroups(obj);
}

.kill(signal, pid, ...) ⇒ Integer (mod_func)

Sends the given signal to the specified process id(s) if pid is positive. If pid is zero signal is sent to all processes whose group ID is equal to the group ID of the process. signal may be an integer signal number or a POSIX signal name (either with or without a SIG prefix). If signal is negative (or starts with a minus sign), kills process groups instead of processes. Not all signals are available on all platforms. The keys and values of Signal.list are known signal names and numbers, respectively.

pid = fork do
   Signal.trap("HUP") { puts "Ouch!"; exit }
   # ... do some work ...
end
# ...
Process.kill("HUP", pid)
Process.wait

produces:

Ouch!

If signal is an integer but wrong for signal, Errno::EINVAL or ::RangeError will be raised. Otherwise unless signal is a ::String or a ::Symbol, and a known signal name, ::ArgumentError will be raised.

Also, Errno::ESRCH or ::RangeError for invalid pid, Errno::EPERM when failed because of no privilege, will be raised. In these cases, signals may have been sent to preceding processes.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'signal.c', line 452

VALUE
rb_f_kill(int argc, const VALUE *argv)
{
#ifndef HAVE_KILLPG
#define killpg(pg, sig) kill(-(pg), (sig))
#endif
    int sig;
    int i;
    VALUE str;

    rb_check_arity(argc, 2, UNLIMITED_ARGUMENTS);

    if (FIXNUM_P(argv[0])) {
	sig = FIX2INT(argv[0]);
    }
    else {
	str = argv[0];
	sig = signm2signo(&str, TRUE, FALSE, NULL);
    }

    if (argc <= 1) return INT2FIX(0);

    if (sig < 0) {
	sig = -sig;
	for (i=1; i<argc; i++) {
	    if (killpg(NUM2PIDT(argv[i]), sig) < 0)
		rb_sys_fail(0);
	}
    }
    else {
	const rb_pid_t self = (GET_THREAD() == GET_VM()->main_thread) ? getpid() : -1;
	int wakeup = 0;

	for (i=1; i<argc; i++) {
	    rb_pid_t pid = NUM2PIDT(argv[i]);

	    if ((sig != 0) && (self != -1) && (pid == self)) {
		int t;
		/*
		 * When target pid is self, many caller assume signal will be
		 * delivered immediately and synchronously.
		 */
		switch (sig) {
		  case SIGSEGV:
#ifdef SIGBUS
		  case SIGBUS:
#endif
#ifdef SIGKILL
		  case SIGKILL:
#endif
#ifdef SIGILL
		  case SIGILL:
#endif
#ifdef SIGFPE
		  case SIGFPE:
#endif
#ifdef SIGSTOP
		  case SIGSTOP:
#endif
		    kill(pid, sig);
		    break;
		  default:
		    t = signal_ignored(sig);
		    if (t) {
			if (t < 0 && kill(pid, sig))
			    rb_sys_fail(0);
			break;
		    }
		    signal_enque(sig);
		    wakeup = 1;
		}
	    }
	    else if (kill(pid, sig) < 0) {
		rb_sys_fail(0);
	    }
	}
	if (wakeup) {
	    rb_threadptr_check_signal(GET_VM()->main_thread);
	}
    }
    rb_thread_execute_interrupts(rb_thread_current());

    return INT2FIX(i-1);
}

.last_statusProcess?

Returns the status of the last executed child process in the current thread.

Process.wait Process.spawn("ruby", "-e", "exit 13")
Process.last_status   #=> #<Process::Status: pid 4825 exit 13>

If no child process has ever been executed in the current thread, this returns nil.

Process.last_status   #=> nil
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 515

static VALUE
proc_s_last_status(VALUE mod)
{
    return rb_last_status_get();
}

.ppidInteger (mod_func)

Returns the process id of the parent of this process. Returns untrustworthy value on Win32/64. Not available on all platforms.

puts "I am #{Process.pid}"
Process.fork { puts "Dad is #{Process.ppid}" }

produces:

I am 27417
Dad is 27417
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 455

static VALUE
get_ppid(void)
{
    return PIDT2NUM(getppid());
}

.setpgid(pid, integer) ⇒ 0 (mod_func)

Sets the process group ID of pid (0 indicates this process) to integer. Not available on all platforms.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 4951

static VALUE
proc_setpgid(VALUE obj, VALUE pid, VALUE pgrp)
{
    rb_pid_t ipid, ipgrp;

    ipid = NUM2PIDT(pid);
    ipgrp = NUM2PIDT(pgrp);

    if (setpgid(ipid, ipgrp) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    return INT2FIX(0);
}

.setpgrp0 (mod_func)

Equivalent to setpgid(0,0). Not available on all platforms.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 4898

static VALUE
proc_setpgrp(void)
{
  /* check for posix setpgid() first; this matches the posix */
  /* getpgrp() above.  It appears that configure will set SETPGRP_VOID */
  /* even though setpgrp(0,0) would be preferred. The posix call avoids */
  /* this confusion. */
#ifdef HAVE_SETPGID
    if (setpgid(0,0) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined(HAVE_SETPGRP) && defined(SETPGRP_VOID)
    if (setpgrp() < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#endif
    return INT2FIX(0);
}

.setpriority(kind, integer, priority) ⇒ 0 (mod_func)

See #getpriority.

Process.setpriority(Process::PRIO_USER, 0, 19)      #=> 0
Process.setpriority(Process::PRIO_PROCESS, 0, 19)   #=> 0
Process.getpriority(Process::PRIO_USER, 0)          #=> 19
Process.getpriority(Process::PRIO_PROCESS, 0)       #=> 19
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 5105

static VALUE
proc_setpriority(VALUE obj, VALUE which, VALUE who, VALUE prio)
{
    int iwhich, iwho, iprio;

    iwhich = NUM2INT(which);
    iwho   = NUM2INT(who);
    iprio  = NUM2INT(prio);

    if (setpriority(iwhich, iwho, iprio) < 0)
	rb_sys_fail(0);
    return INT2FIX(0);
}

.setproctitle(string) ⇒ String (mod_func)

Sets the process title that appears on the ps(1) command. Not necessarily effective on all platforms. No exception will be raised regardless of the result, nor will ::NotImplementedError be raised even if the platform does not support the feature.

Calling this method does not affect the value of $0.

Process.setproctitle('myapp: worker #%d' % worker_id)

This method first appeared in Ruby 2.1 to serve as a global variable free means to change the process title.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'ruby.c', line 2218

static VALUE
proc_setproctitle(VALUE process, VALUE title)
{
    return ruby_setproctitle(title);
}

.setrlimit(resource, cur_limit, max_limit) ⇒ nil (mod_func) .setrlimit(resource, cur_limit) ⇒ nil

Sets the resource limit of the process. cur_limit means current (soft) limit and max_limit means maximum (hard) limit.

If max_limit is not given, cur_limit is used.

resource indicates the kind of resource to limit. It should be a symbol such as :CORE, a string such as "CORE" or a constant such as RLIMIT_CORE. The available resources are OS dependent. Ruby may support following resources.

AS

total available memory (bytes) (SUSv3, NetBSD, FreeBSD, OpenBSD but 4.4BSD-Lite)

CORE

core size (bytes) (SUSv3)

CPU

CPU time (seconds) (SUSv3)

DATA

data segment (bytes) (SUSv3)

FSIZE

file size (bytes) (SUSv3)

MEMLOCK

total size for mlock(2) (bytes) (4.4BSD, GNU/Linux)

MSGQUEUE

allocation for POSIX message queues (bytes) (GNU/Linux)

NICE

ceiling on process's nice(2) value (number) (GNU/Linux)

NOFILE

file descriptors (number) (SUSv3)

NPROC

number of processes for the user (number) (4.4BSD, GNU/Linux)

RSS

resident memory size (bytes) (4.2BSD, GNU/Linux)

RTPRIO

ceiling on the process's real-time priority (number) (GNU/Linux)

RTTIME

CPU time for real-time process (us) (GNU/Linux)

SBSIZE

all socket buffers (bytes) (NetBSD, FreeBSD)

SIGPENDING

number of queued signals allowed (signals) (GNU/Linux)

STACK

stack size (bytes) (SUSv3)

cur_limit and max_limit may be :INFINITY, "INFINITY" or RLIM_INFINITY, which means that the resource is not limited. They may be RLIM_SAVED_MAX, RLIM_SAVED_CUR and corresponding symbols and strings too. See system setrlimit(2) manual for details.

The following example raises the soft limit of core size to the hard limit to try to make core dump possible.

Process.setrlimit(:CORE, Process.getrlimit(:CORE)[1])
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 5431

static VALUE
proc_setrlimit(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE resource, rlim_cur, rlim_max;
    struct rlimit rlim;

    rb_check_arity(argc, 2, 3);
    resource = argv[0];
    rlim_cur = argv[1];
    if (argc < 3 || NIL_P(rlim_max = argv[2]))
        rlim_max = rlim_cur;

    rlim.rlim_cur = rlimit_resource_value(rlim_cur);
    rlim.rlim_max = rlimit_resource_value(rlim_max);

    if (setrlimit(rlimit_resource_type(resource), &rlim) < 0) {
	rb_sys_fail("setrlimit");
    }
    return Qnil;
}

.setsidInteger (mod_func)

Establishes this process as a new session and process group leader, with no controlling tty. Returns the session id. Not available on all platforms.

Process.setsid   #=> 27422
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 5014

static VALUE
proc_setsid(void)
{
    rb_pid_t pid;

    pid = setsid();
    if (pid < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    return PIDT2NUM(pid);
}

.spawn([env,][,options]) ⇒ pid

Alias for Kernel.spawn.

.timesProcess (mod_func)

Returns a Tms structure (see Process::Tms) that contains user and system CPU times for this process, and also for children processes.

t = Process.times
[ t.utime, t.stime, t.cutime, t.cstime ]   #=> [0.0, 0.02, 0.00, 0.00]
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 7364

VALUE
rb_proc_times(VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE utime, stime, cutime, cstime, ret;
#if defined(RUSAGE_SELF) && defined(RUSAGE_CHILDREN)
    struct rusage usage_s, usage_c;

    if (getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF, &usage_s) != 0 || getrusage(RUSAGE_CHILDREN, &usage_c) != 0)
	rb_sys_fail("getrusage");
    utime = DBL2NUM((double)usage_s.ru_utime.tv_sec + (double)usage_s.ru_utime.tv_usec/1e6);
    stime = DBL2NUM((double)usage_s.ru_stime.tv_sec + (double)usage_s.ru_stime.tv_usec/1e6);
    cutime = DBL2NUM((double)usage_c.ru_utime.tv_sec + (double)usage_c.ru_utime.tv_usec/1e6);
    cstime = DBL2NUM((double)usage_c.ru_stime.tv_sec + (double)usage_c.ru_stime.tv_usec/1e6);
#else
    const double hertz = (double)get_clk_tck();
    struct tms buf;

    times(&buf);
    utime = DBL2NUM(buf.tms_utime / hertz);
    stime = DBL2NUM(buf.tms_stime / hertz);
    cutime = DBL2NUM(buf.tms_cutime / hertz);
    cstime = DBL2NUM(buf.tms_cstime / hertz);
#endif
    ret = rb_struct_new(rb_cProcessTms, utime, stime, cutime, cstime);
    RB_GC_GUARD(utime);
    RB_GC_GUARD(stime);
    RB_GC_GUARD(cutime);
    RB_GC_GUARD(cstime);
    return ret;
}

.wait() ⇒ Integer (mod_func) .wait(pid = -1, flags = 0) ⇒ Integer .waitpid(pid = -1, flags = 0) ⇒ Integer
Also known as: .waitpid

Waits for a child process to exit, returns its process id, and sets $? to a ::Process::Status object containing information on that process. Which child it waits on depends on the value of pid:

> 0

Waits for the child whose process ID equals pid.

0

Waits for any child whose process group ID equals that of the calling process.

-1

Waits for any child process (the default if no pid is given).

< -1

Waits for any child whose process group ID equals the absolute value of pid.

The flags argument may be a logical or of the flag values WNOHANG (do not block if no child available) or WUNTRACED (return stopped children that haven't been reported). Not all flags are available on all platforms, but a flag value of zero will work on all platforms.

Calling this method raises a ::SystemCallError if there are no child processes. Not available on all platforms.

include Process
fork { exit 99 }                 #=> 27429
wait                             #=> 27429
$?.exitstatus                    #=> 99

pid = fork { sleep 3 }           #=> 27440
Time.now                         #=> 2008-03-08 19:56:16 +0900
waitpid(pid, Process::WNOHANG)   #=> nil
Time.now                         #=> 2008-03-08 19:56:16 +0900
waitpid(pid, 0)                  #=> 27440
Time.now                         #=> 2008-03-08 19:56:19 +0900
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 1280

static VALUE
proc_wait(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    rb_pid_t pid;
    int flags, status;

    flags = 0;
    if (rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 2) == 0) {
	pid = -1;
    }
    else {
	VALUE vflags;
	pid = NUM2PIDT(argv[0]);
	if (argc == 2 && !NIL_P(vflags = argv[1])) {
	    flags = NUM2UINT(vflags);
	}
    }
    if ((pid = rb_waitpid(pid, &status, flags)) < 0)
	rb_sys_fail(0);
    if (pid == 0) {
	rb_last_status_clear();
	return Qnil;
    }
    return PIDT2NUM(pid);
}

.wait2(pid = -1, flags = 0) ⇒ Array, status (mod_func) .waitpid2(pid = -1, flags = 0) ⇒ Array, status
Also known as: .waitpid2

Waits for a child process to exit (see .waitpid for exact semantics) and returns an array containing the process id and the exit status (a ::Process::Status object) of that child. Raises a ::SystemCallError if there are no child processes.

Process.fork { exit 99 }   #=> 27437
pid, status = Process.wait2
pid                        #=> 27437
status.exitstatus          #=> 99
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 1323

static VALUE
proc_wait2(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE pid = proc_wait(argc, argv);
    if (NIL_P(pid)) return Qnil;
    return rb_assoc_new(pid, rb_last_status_get());
}

.waitallArray, ... (mod_func)

Waits for all children, returning an array of pid/status pairs (where status is a ::Process::Status object).

fork { sleep 0.2; exit 2 }   #=> 27432
fork { sleep 0.1; exit 1 }   #=> 27433
fork {            exit 0 }   #=> 27434
p Process.waitall

produces:

[[30982, #<Process::Status: pid 30982 exit 0>],
 [30979, #<Process::Status: pid 30979 exit 1>],
 [30976, #<Process::Status: pid 30976 exit 2>]]
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'process.c', line 1352

static VALUE
proc_waitall(void)
{
    VALUE result;
    rb_pid_t pid;
    int status;

    result = rb_ary_new();
    rb_last_status_clear();

    for (pid = -1;;) {
	pid = rb_waitpid(-1, &status, 0);
	if (pid == -1) {
	    int e = errno;
	    if (e == ECHILD)
		break;
	    rb_syserr_fail(e, 0);
	}
	rb_ary_push(result, rb_assoc_new(PIDT2NUM(pid), rb_last_status_get()));
    }
    return result;
}

.wait() ⇒ Integer (mod_func) .wait(pid = -1, flags = 0) ⇒ Integer .waitpid(pid = -1, flags = 0) ⇒ Integer

Alias for .wait.

.wait2(pid = -1, flags = 0) ⇒ Array, status (mod_func) .waitpid2(pid = -1, flags = 0) ⇒ Array, status

Alias for .wait2.