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Class: Enumerator

Relationships & Source Files
Namespace Children
Classes:
Extension / Inclusion / Inheritance Descendants
Subclasses:
Super Chains via Extension / Inclusion / Inheritance
Instance Chain:
self, ::Enumerable
Inherits: Object
Defined in: enumerator.c,
enumerator.c

Overview

A class which allows both internal and external iteration.

An Enumerator can be created by the following methods.

Most methods have two forms: a block form where the contents are evaluated for each item in the enumeration, and a non-block form which returns a new Enumerator wrapping the iteration.

enumerator = %w(one two three).each
puts enumerator.class # => Enumerator

enumerator.each_with_object("foo") do |item, obj|
  puts "#{obj}: #{item}"
end

# foo: one
# foo: two
# foo: three

enum_with_obj = enumerator.each_with_object("foo")
puts enum_with_obj.class # => Enumerator

enum_with_obj.each do |item, obj|
  puts "#{obj}: #{item}"
end

# foo: one
# foo: two
# foo: three

This allows you to chain Enumerators together. For example, you can map a list's elements to strings containing the index and the element as a string via:

puts %w[foo bar baz].map.with_index { |w, i| "#{i}:#{w}" }
# => ["0:foo", "1:bar", "2:baz"]

An Enumerator can also be used as an external iterator. For example, #next returns the next value of the iterator or raises ::StopIteration if the Enumerator is at the end.

e = [1,2,3].each   # returns an enumerator object.
puts e.next   # => 1
puts e.next   # => 2
puts e.next   # => 3
puts e.next   # raises StopIteration

You can use this to implement an internal iterator as follows:

def ext_each(e)
  while true
    begin
      vs = e.next_values
    rescue StopIteration
      return $!.result
    end
    y = yield(*vs)
    e.feed y
  end
end

o = Object.new

def o.each
  puts yield
  puts yield(1)
  puts yield(1, 2)
  3
end

# use o.each as an internal iterator directly.
puts o.each {|*x| puts x; [:b, *x] }
# => [], [:b], [1], [:b, 1], [1, 2], [:b, 1, 2], 3

# convert o.each to an external iterator for
# implementing an internal iterator.
puts ext_each(o.to_enum) {|*x| puts x; [:b, *x] }
# => [], [:b], [1], [:b, 1], [1, 2], [:b, 1, 2], 3

Class Method Summary

Instance Method Summary

::Enumerable - Included

#all?

Passes each element of the collection to the given block.

#any?

Passes each element of the collection to the given block.

#chain

Returns an enumerator object generated from this enumerator and given enumerables.

#chunk

Enumerates over the items, chunking them together based on the return value of the block.

#chunk_while

Creates an enumerator for each chunked elements.

#collect

Alias for Enumerable#map.

#collect_concat
#count

Returns the number of items in enum through enumeration.

#cycle

Calls block for each element of enum repeatedly n times or forever if none or nil is given.

#detect

Alias for Enumerable#find.

#drop

Drops first n elements from enum, and returns rest elements in an array.

#drop_while

Drops elements up to, but not including, the first element for which the block returns nil or false and returns an array containing the remaining elements.

#each_cons

Iterates the given block for each array of consecutive <n> elements.

#each_entry

Calls block once for each element in self, passing that element as a parameter, converting multiple values from yield to an array.

#each_slice

Iterates the given block for each slice of <n> elements.

#each_with_index

Calls block with two arguments, the item and its index, for each item in enum.

#each_with_object

Iterates the given block for each element with an arbitrary object given, and returns the initially given object.

#entries

Alias for Enumerable#to_a.

#filter

Returns an array containing all elements of enum for which the given block returns a true value.

#filter_map

Returns a new array containing the truthy results (everything except false or nil) of running the block for every element in enum.

#find

Passes each entry in enum to block.

#find_all
#find_index

Compares each entry in enum with value or passes to block.

#first

Returns the first element, or the first n elements, of the enumerable.

#flat_map

Returns a new array with the concatenated results of running block once for every element in enum.

#grep

Returns an array of every element in enum for which Pattern === element.

#grep_v

Inverted version of Enumerable#grep.

#group_by

Groups the collection by result of the block.

#include?
#inject

Combines all elements of enum by applying a binary operation, specified by a block or a symbol that names a method or operator.

#lazy

Returns an Lazy, which redefines most ::Enumerable methods to postpone enumeration and enumerate values only on an as-needed basis.

#map

Returns a new array with the results of running block once for every element in enum.

#max

Returns the object in enum with the maximum value.

#max_by

Returns the object in enum that gives the maximum value from the given block.

#member?

Returns true if any member of enum equals obj.

#min

Returns the object in enum with the minimum value.

#min_by

Returns the object in enum that gives the minimum value from the given block.

#minmax

Returns a two element array which contains the minimum and the maximum value in the enumerable.

#minmax_by

Returns a two element array containing the objects in enum that correspond to the minimum and maximum values respectively from the given block.

#none?

Passes each element of the collection to the given block.

#one?

Passes each element of the collection to the given block.

#partition

Returns two arrays, the first containing the elements of enum for which the block evaluates to true, the second containing the rest.

#reduce
#reject

Returns an array for all elements of enum for which the given block returns false.

#reverse_each

Builds a temporary array and traverses that array in reverse order.

#select
#slice_after

Creates an enumerator for each chunked elements.

#slice_before

Creates an enumerator for each chunked elements.

#slice_when

Creates an enumerator for each chunked elements.

#sort

Returns an array containing the items in enum sorted.

#sort_by

Sorts enum using a set of keys generated by mapping the values in enum through the given block.

#sum

Returns the sum of elements in an ::Enumerable.

#take

Returns first n elements from enum.

#take_while

Passes elements to the block until the block returns nil or false, then stops iterating and returns an array of all prior elements.

#tally

Tallys the collection.

#to_a

Returns an array containing the items in enum.

#to_h

Returns the result of interpreting enum as a list of [key, value] pairs.

#uniq

Returns a new array by removing duplicate values in self.

#zip

Takes one element from enum and merges corresponding elements from each args.

Constructor Details

.new(size = nil) {|yielder| ... } .new(obj, method = :each, *args)

Creates a new Enumerator object, which can be used as an ::Enumerable.

In the first form, iteration is defined by the given block, in which a “yielder” object, given as block parameter, can be used to yield a value by calling the yield method (aliased as <<):

fib = Enumerator.new do |y|
  a = b = 1
  loop do
    y << a
    a, b = b, a + b
  end
end

p fib.take(10) # => [1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55]

The optional parameter can be used to specify how to calculate the size in a lazy fashion (see #size). It can either be a value or a callable object.

In the second, deprecated, form, a generated Enumerator iterates over the given object using the given method with the given arguments passed.

Use of this form is discouraged. Use Object#enum_for or Object#to_enum instead.

e = Enumerator.new(ObjectSpace, :each_object)
    #-> ObjectSpace.enum_for(:each_object)

e.select { |obj| obj.is_a?(Class) }  #=> array of all classes
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'enumerator.c', line 404

static VALUE
enumerator_initialize(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE recv, meth = sym_each;
    VALUE size = Qnil;

    if (rb_block_given_p()) {
	rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1);
	recv = generator_init(generator_allocate(rb_cGenerator), rb_block_proc());
	if (argc) {
            if (NIL_P(argv[0]) || rb_respond_to(argv[0], id_call) ||
                (RB_TYPE_P(argv[0], T_FLOAT) && RFLOAT_VALUE(argv[0]) == HUGE_VAL)) {
                size = argv[0];
            }
            else {
                size = rb_to_int(argv[0]);
            }
            argc = 0;
        }
    }
    else {
	rb_check_arity(argc, 1, UNLIMITED_ARGUMENTS);
	rb_warn("Enumerator.new without a block is deprecated; use Object#to_enum");
	recv = *argv++;
	if (--argc) {
	    meth = *argv++;
	    --argc;
	}
    }

    return enumerator_init(obj, recv, meth, argc, argv, 0, size);
}

Instance Method Details

#+(enum) ⇒ Enumerator

Returns an enumerator object generated from this enumerator and a given enumerable.

e = (1..3).each + [4, 5]
e.to_a #=> [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'enumerator.c', line 2907

static VALUE
enumerator_plus(VALUE obj, VALUE eobj)
{
    VALUE enums = rb_ary_new_from_args(2, obj, eobj);

    return enum_chain_initialize(enum_chain_allocate(rb_cEnumChain), enums);
}

#each {|elm| ... } ⇒ Object #eachEnumerator #each(*appending_args) {|elm| ... } ⇒ Object #each(*appending_args) ⇒ Enumerator

Iterates over the block according to how this Enumerator was constructed. If no block and no arguments are given, returns self.

Examples

"Hello, world!".scan(/\w+/)                     #=> ["Hello", "world"]
"Hello, world!".to_enum(:scan, /\w+/).to_a      #=> ["Hello", "world"]
"Hello, world!".to_enum(:scan).each(/\w+/).to_a #=> ["Hello", "world"]

obj = Object.new

def obj.each_arg(a, b=:b, *rest)
  yield a
  yield b
  yield rest
  :method_returned
end

enum = obj.to_enum :each_arg, :a, :x

enum.each.to_a                  #=> [:a, :x, []]
enum.each.equal?(enum)          #=> true
enum.each { |elm| elm }         #=> :method_returned

enum.each(:y, :z).to_a          #=> [:a, :x, [:y, :z]]
enum.each(:y, :z).equal?(enum)  #=> false
enum.each(:y, :z) { |elm| elm } #=> :method_returned
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'enumerator.c', line 543

static VALUE
enumerator_each(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    if (argc > 0) {
	struct enumerator *e = enumerator_ptr(obj = rb_obj_dup(obj));
	VALUE args = e->args;
	if (args) {
#if SIZEOF_INT < SIZEOF_LONG
	    /* check int range overflow */
	    rb_long2int(RARRAY_LEN(args) + argc);
#endif
	    args = rb_ary_dup(args);
	    rb_ary_cat(args, argv, argc);
	}
	else {
	    args = rb_ary_new4(argc, argv);
	}
	e->args = args;
        e->size = Qnil;
        e->size_fn = 0;
    }
    if (!rb_block_given_p()) return obj;
    return enumerator_block_call(obj, 0, obj);
}

#each_with_index {|(*args), idx| ... } #each_with_index

Same as Enumerator#with_index(0), i.e. there is no starting offset.

If no block is given, a new Enumerator is returned that includes the index.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'enumerator.c', line 623

static VALUE
enumerator_each_with_index(VALUE obj)
{
    return enumerator_with_index(0, NULL, obj);
}

#each_with_object(obj) {|(*args), obj| ... } #each_with_object(obj) #with_object(obj) {|(*args), obj| ... } #with_object(obj)

Alias for #with_object.

#feed(obj) ⇒ nil

Sets the value to be returned by the next yield inside e.

If the value is not set, the yield returns nil.

This value is cleared after being yielded.

# Array#map passes the array's elements to "yield" and collects the
# results of "yield" as an array.
# Following example shows that "next" returns the passed elements and
# values passed to "feed" are collected as an array which can be
# obtained by StopIteration#result.
e = [1,2,3].map
p e.next           #=> 1
e.feed "a"
p e.next           #=> 2
e.feed "b"
p e.next           #=> 3
e.feed "c"
begin
  e.next
rescue StopIteration
  p $!.result      #=> ["a", "b", "c"]
end

o = Object.new
def o.each
  x = yield         # (2) blocks
  p x               # (5) => "foo"
  x = yield         # (6) blocks
  p x               # (8) => nil
  x = yield         # (9) blocks
  p x               # not reached w/o another e.next
end

e = o.to_enum
e.next              # (1)
e.feed "foo"        # (3)
e.next              # (4)
e.next              # (7)
                    # (10)
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'enumerator.c', line 968

static VALUE
enumerator_feed(VALUE obj, VALUE v)
{
    struct enumerator *e = enumerator_ptr(obj);

    if (e->feedvalue != Qundef) {
	rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "feed value already set");
    }
    e->feedvalue = v;

    return Qnil;
}

#initialize_copy(orig)

This method is for internal use only.
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'enumerator.c', line 438

static VALUE
enumerator_init_copy(VALUE obj, VALUE orig)
{
    struct enumerator *ptr0, *ptr1;

    if (!OBJ_INIT_COPY(obj, orig)) return obj;
    ptr0 = enumerator_ptr(orig);
    if (ptr0->fib) {
	/* Fibers cannot be copied */
	rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "can't copy execution context");
    }

    TypedData_Get_Struct(obj, struct enumerator, &enumerator_data_type, ptr1);

    if (!ptr1) {
	rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "unallocated enumerator");
    }

    ptr1->obj  = ptr0->obj;
    ptr1->meth = ptr0->meth;
    ptr1->args = ptr0->args;
    ptr1->fib  = 0;
    ptr1->lookahead  = Qundef;
    ptr1->feedvalue  = Qundef;
    ptr1->size  = ptr0->size;
    ptr1->size_fn  = ptr0->size_fn;

    return obj;
}

#inspectString

Creates a printable version of e.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'enumerator.c', line 1139

static VALUE
enumerator_inspect(VALUE obj)
{
    return rb_exec_recursive(inspect_enumerator, obj, 0);
}

#nextObject

Returns the next object in the enumerator, and move the internal position forward. When the position reached at the end, ::StopIteration is raised.

Example

a = [1,2,3]
e = a.to_enum
p e.next   #=> 1
p e.next   #=> 2
p e.next   #=> 3
p e.next   #raises StopIteration

Note that enumeration sequence by next does not affect other non-external enumeration methods, unless the underlying iteration methods itself has side-effect, e.g. IO#each_line.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'enumerator.c', line 841

static VALUE
enumerator_next(VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE vs = enumerator_next_values(obj);
    return ary2sv(vs, 0);
}

#next_valuesArray

Returns the next object as an array in the enumerator, and move the internal position forward. When the position reached at the end, ::StopIteration is raised.

This method can be used to distinguish yield and yield nil.

Example

o = Object.new
def o.each
  yield
  yield 1
  yield 1, 2
  yield nil
  yield [1, 2]
end
e = o.to_enum
p e.next_values
p e.next_values
p e.next_values
p e.next_values
p e.next_values
e = o.to_enum
p e.next
p e.next
p e.next
p e.next
p e.next

## yield args       next_values      next
#  yield            []               nil
#  yield 1          [1]              1
#  yield 1, 2       [1, 2]           [1, 2]
#  yield nil        [nil]            nil
#  yield [1, 2]     [[1, 2]]         [1, 2]

Note that next_values does not affect other non-external enumeration methods unless underlying iteration method itself has side-effect, e.g. IO#each_line.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'enumerator.c', line 784

static VALUE
enumerator_next_values(VALUE obj)
{
    struct enumerator *e = enumerator_ptr(obj);
    VALUE vs;

    if (e->lookahead != Qundef) {
        vs = e->lookahead;
        e->lookahead = Qundef;
        return vs;
    }

    return get_next_values(obj, e);
}

#peekObject

Returns the next object in the enumerator, but doesn't move the internal position forward. If the position is already at the end, ::StopIteration is raised.

Example

a = [1,2,3]
e = a.to_enum
p e.next   #=> 1
p e.peek   #=> 2
p e.peek   #=> 2
p e.peek   #=> 2
p e.next   #=> 2
p e.next   #=> 3
p e.peek   #raises StopIteration
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'enumerator.c', line 915

static VALUE
enumerator_peek(VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE vs = enumerator_peek_values(obj);
    return ary2sv(vs, 1);
}

#peek_valuesArray

Returns the next object as an array, similar to #next_values, but doesn't move the internal position forward. If the position is already at the end, ::StopIteration is raised.

Example

o = Object.new
def o.each
  yield
  yield 1
  yield 1, 2
end
e = o.to_enum
p e.peek_values    #=> []
e.next
p e.peek_values    #=> [1]
p e.peek_values    #=> [1]
e.next
p e.peek_values    #=> [1, 2]
e.next
p e.peek_values    # raises StopIteration
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'enumerator.c', line 887

static VALUE
enumerator_peek_values_m(VALUE obj)
{
    return rb_ary_dup(enumerator_peek_values(obj));
}

#rewinde

Rewinds the enumeration sequence to the beginning.

If the enclosed object responds to a “rewind” method, it is called.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'enumerator.c', line 990

static VALUE
enumerator_rewind(VALUE obj)
{
    struct enumerator *e = enumerator_ptr(obj);

    rb_check_funcall(e->obj, id_rewind, 0, 0);

    e->fib = 0;
    e->dst = Qnil;
    e->lookahead = Qundef;
    e->feedvalue = Qundef;
    e->stop_exc = Qfalse;
    return obj;
}

#sizeInteger, ...

Returns the size of the enumerator, or nil if it can't be calculated lazily.

(1..100).to_a.permutation(4).size # => 94109400
loop.size # => Float::INFINITY
(1..100).drop_while.size # => nil
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'enumerator.c', line 1156

static VALUE
enumerator_size(VALUE obj)
{
    struct enumerator *e = enumerator_ptr(obj);
    int argc = 0;
    const VALUE *argv = NULL;
    VALUE size;

    if (e->procs) {
	struct generator *g = generator_ptr(e->obj);
	VALUE receiver = rb_check_funcall(g->obj, id_size, 0, 0);
	long i = 0;

	for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(e->procs); i++) {
	    VALUE proc = RARRAY_AREF(e->procs, i);
	    struct proc_entry *entry = proc_entry_ptr(proc);
	    lazyenum_size_func *size_fn = entry->fn->size;
	    if (!size_fn) {
		return Qnil;
	    }
	    receiver = (*size_fn)(proc, receiver);
	}
	return receiver;
    }

    if (e->size_fn) {
	return (*e->size_fn)(e->obj, e->args, obj);
    }
    if (e->args) {
	argc = (int)RARRAY_LEN(e->args);
	argv = RARRAY_CONST_PTR(e->args);
    }
    size = rb_check_funcall(e->size, id_call, argc, argv);
    if (size != Qundef) return size;
    return e->size;
}

#with_index(offset = 0) {|(*args), idx| ... } #with_index(offset = 0)

Iterates the given block for each element with an index, which starts from offset. If no block is given, returns a new Enumerator that includes the index, starting from offset

offset

the starting index to use

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'enumerator.c', line 602

static VALUE
enumerator_with_index(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE memo;

    rb_check_arity(argc, 0, 1);
    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(obj, argc, argv, enumerator_enum_size);
    memo = (!argc || NIL_P(memo = argv[0])) ? INT2FIX(0) : rb_to_int(memo);
    return enumerator_block_call(obj, enumerator_with_index_i, (VALUE)MEMO_NEW(memo, 0, 0));
}

#each_with_object(obj) {|(*args), obj| ... } #each_with_object(obj) #with_object(obj) {|(*args), obj| ... } #with_object(obj)
Also known as: #each_with_object

Iterates the given block for each element with an arbitrary object, obj, and returns obj

If no block is given, returns a new Enumerator.

Example

to_three = Enumerator.new do |y|
  3.times do |x|
    y << x
  end
end

to_three_with_string = to_three.with_object("foo")
to_three_with_string.each do |x,string|
  puts "#{string}: #{x}"
end

# => foo:0
# => foo:1
# => foo:2
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'enumerator.c', line 667

static VALUE
enumerator_with_object(VALUE obj, VALUE memo)
{
    RETURN_SIZED_ENUMERATOR(obj, 1, &memo, enumerator_enum_size);
    enumerator_block_call(obj, enumerator_with_object_i, memo);

    return memo;
}