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Class: Net::HTTP

Relationships & Source Files
Namespace Children
Modules:
Classes:
Super Chains via Extension / Inclusion / Inheritance
Class Chain:
self, Protocol
Instance Chain:
self, Protocol
Inherits: Protocol
  • Object
Defined in: lib/net/http.rb,
lib/net/http/backward.rb

Overview

An HTTP client API for Ruby.

HTTP provides a rich library which can be used to build HTTP user-agents. For more details about HTTP see RFC2616.

HTTP is designed to work closely with URI. URI::HTTP#host, URI::HTTP#port and URI::HTTP#request_uri are designed to work with HTTP.

If you are only performing a few GET requests you should try OpenURI.

Simple Examples

All examples assume you have loaded HTTP with:

require 'net/http'

This will also require 'uri' so you don't need to require it separately.

The HTTP methods in the following section do not persist connections. They are not recommended if you are performing many HTTP requests.

GET

Net::HTTP.get('example.com', '/index.html') # => String

GET by URI

uri = URI('http://example.com/index.html?count=10')
Net::HTTP.get(uri) # => String

GET with Dynamic Parameters

uri = URI('http://example.com/index.html')
params = { :limit => 10, :page => 3 }
uri.query = URI.encode_www_form(params)

res = Net::HTTP.get_response(uri)
puts res.body if res.is_a?(Net::HTTPSuccess)

POST

uri = URI('http://www.example.com/search.cgi')
res = Net::HTTP.post_form(uri, 'q' => 'ruby', 'max' => '50')
puts res.body

POST with Multiple Values

uri = URI('http://www.example.com/search.cgi')
res = Net::HTTP.post_form(uri, 'q' => ['ruby', 'perl'], 'max' => '50')
puts res.body

How to use HTTP

The following example code can be used as the basis of an HTTP user-agent which can perform a variety of request types using persistent connections.

uri = URI('http://example.com/some_path?query=string')

Net::HTTP.start(uri.host, uri.port) do |http|
  request = Net::HTTP::Get.new uri

  response = http.request request # Net::HTTPResponse object
end

.start immediately creates a connection to an HTTP server which is kept open for the duration of the block. The connection will remain open for multiple requests in the block if the server indicates it supports persistent connections.

If you wish to re-use a connection across multiple HTTP requests without automatically closing it you can use .new and then call #start and #finish manually.

The request types HTTP supports are listed below in the section “HTTP Request Classes”.

For all the HTTP request objects and shortcut request methods you may supply either a String for the request path or a URI from which HTTP will extract the request path.

Response Data

uri = URI('http://example.com/index.html')
res = Net::HTTP.get_response(uri)

# Headers
res['Set-Cookie']            # => String
res.get_fields('set-cookie') # => Array
res.to_hash['set-cookie']    # => Array
puts "Headers: #{res.to_hash.inspect}"

# Status
puts res.code       # => '200'
puts res.message    # => 'OK'
puts res.class.name # => 'HTTPOK'

# Body
puts res.body if res.response_body_permitted?

Following Redirection

Each HTTPResponse object belongs to a class for its response code.

For example, all 2XX responses are instances of a HTTPSuccess subclass, a 3XX response is an instance of a HTTPRedirection subclass and a 200 response is an instance of the HTTPOK class. For details of response classes, see the section “HTTP Response Classes” below.

Using a case statement you can handle various types of responses properly:

def fetch(uri_str, limit = 10)
  # You should choose a better exception.
  raise ArgumentError, 'too many HTTP redirects' if limit == 0

  response = Net::HTTP.get_response(URI(uri_str))

  case response
  when Net::HTTPSuccess then
    response
  when Net::HTTPRedirection then
    location = response['location']
    warn "redirected to #{location}"
    fetch(location, limit - 1)
  else
    response.value
  end
end

print fetch('http://www.ruby-lang.org')

POST

A POST can be made using the Post request class. This example creates a URL encoded POST body:

uri = URI('http://www.example.com/todo.cgi')
req = Net::HTTP::Post.new(uri)
req.set_form_data('from' => '2005-01-01', 'to' => '2005-03-31')

res = Net::HTTP.start(uri.hostname, uri.port) do |http|

http.request(req)

end

case res
when Net::HTTPSuccess, Net::HTTPRedirection
  # OK
else
  res.value
end

To send multipart/form-data use HTTPHeader#set_form:

req = Net::HTTP::Post.new(uri)
req.set_form([['upload', File.open('foo.bar')]], 'multipart/form-data')

Other requests that can contain a body such as PUT can be created in the same way using the corresponding request class (Net::HTTP::Put).

Setting Headers

The following example performs a conditional GET using the If-Modified-Since header. If the files has not been modified since the time in the header a Not Modified response will be returned. See RFC 2616 section 9.3 for further details.

uri = URI('http://example.com/cached_response')
file = File.stat 'cached_response'

req = Net::HTTP::Get.new(uri)
req['If-Modified-Since'] = file.mtime.rfc2822

res = Net::HTTP.start(uri.hostname, uri.port) {|http|

http.request(req)

}

open 'cached_response', 'w' do |io|
  io.write res.body
end if res.is_a?(Net::HTTPSuccess)

Basic Authentication

Basic authentication is performed according to RFC2617.

uri = URI('http://example.com/index.html?key=value')

req = Net::HTTP::Get.new(uri)
req.basic_auth 'user', 'pass'

res = Net::HTTP.start(uri.hostname, uri.port) {|http|

http.request(req)

}
puts res.body

Streaming Response Bodies

By default HTTP reads an entire response into memory. If you are handling large files or wish to implement a progress bar you can instead stream the body directly to an IO.

uri = URI('http://example.com/large_file')

Net::HTTP.start(uri.host, uri.port) do |http|
  request = Net::HTTP::Get.new uri

http.request request do |response|

    open 'large_file', 'w' do |io|
      response.read_body do |chunk|
        io.write chunk
      end
    end
  end
end

HTTPS

HTTPS is enabled for an HTTP connection by #use_ssl=.

uri = URI('https://secure.example.com/some_path?query=string')

Net::HTTP.start(uri.host, uri.port, :use_ssl => true) do |http|
  request = Net::HTTP::Get.new uri
  response = http.request request # Net::HTTPResponse object
end

Or if you simply want to make a GET request, you may pass in an URI object that has an HTTPS URL. HTTP automatically turns on TLS verification if the URI object has a 'https' URI scheme.

uri = URI('https://example.com/')
Net::HTTP.get(uri) # => String

In previous versions of Ruby you would need to require 'net/https' to use HTTPS. This is no longer true.

Proxies

HTTP will automatically create a proxy from the http_proxy environment variable if it is present. To disable use of http_proxy, pass nil for the proxy address.

You may also create a custom proxy:

proxy_addr = 'your.proxy.host'
proxy_port = 8080

Net::HTTP.new('example.com', nil, proxy_addr, proxy_port).start { |http|
  # always proxy via your.proxy.addr:8080
}

See .new for further details and examples such as proxies that require a username and password.

Compression

HTTP automatically adds Accept-Encoding for compression of response bodies and automatically decompresses gzip and deflate responses unless a Range header was sent.

Compression can be disabled through the Accept-Encoding: identity header.

HTTP Request Classes

Here is the HTTP request class hierarchy.

  • HTTPRequest

    • Net::HTTP::Get

    • Net::HTTP::Head

    • Net::HTTP::Post

    • Net::HTTP::Patch

    • Net::HTTP::Put

    • Net::HTTP::Proppatch

    • Net::HTTP::Lock

    • Net::HTTP::Unlock

    • Net::HTTP::Options

    • Net::HTTP::Propfind

    • Net::HTTP::Delete

    • Net::HTTP::Move

    • Net::HTTP::Copy

    • Net::HTTP::Mkcol

    • Net::HTTP::Trace

HTTP Response Classes

Here is HTTP response class hierarchy. All classes are defined in ::Net module and are subclasses of HTTPResponse.

HTTPUnknownResponse

For unhandled HTTP extensions

HTTPInformation

1xx

HTTPContinue

100

HTTPSwitchProtocol

101

HTTPSuccess

2xx

HTTPOK

200

HTTPCreated

201

HTTPAccepted

202

HTTPNonAuthoritativeInformation

203

HTTPNoContent

204

HTTPResetContent

205

HTTPPartialContent

206

HTTPMultiStatus

207

HTTPIMUsed

226

HTTPRedirection

3xx

HTTPMultipleChoices

300

HTTPMovedPermanently

301

HTTPFound

302

HTTPSeeOther

303

HTTPNotModified

304

HTTPUseProxy

305

HTTPTemporaryRedirect

307

HTTPClientError

4xx

HTTPBadRequest

400

HTTPUnauthorized

401

HTTPPaymentRequired

402

HTTPForbidden

403

HTTPNotFound

404

HTTPMethodNotAllowed

405

HTTPNotAcceptable

406

HTTPProxyAuthenticationRequired

407

HTTPRequestTimeOut

408

HTTPConflict

409

HTTPGone

410

HTTPLengthRequired

411

HTTPPreconditionFailed

412

HTTPRequestEntityTooLarge

413

HTTPRequestURITooLong

414

HTTPUnsupportedMediaType

415

HTTPRequestedRangeNotSatisfiable

416

HTTPExpectationFailed

417

HTTPUnprocessableEntity

422

HTTPLocked

423

HTTPFailedDependency

424

HTTPUpgradeRequired

426

HTTPPreconditionRequired

428

HTTPTooManyRequests

429

HTTPRequestHeaderFieldsTooLarge

431

HTTPUnavailableForLegalReasons

451

HTTPServerError

5xx

HTTPInternalServerError

500

HTTPNotImplemented

501

HTTPBadGateway

502

HTTPServiceUnavailable

503

HTTPGatewayTimeOut

504

HTTPVersionNotSupported

505

HTTPInsufficientStorage

507

HTTPNetworkAuthenticationRequired

511

There is also the HTTPBadResponse exception which is raised when there is a protocol error.

Constant Summary

  • ENVIRONMENT_VARIABLE_IS_MULTIUSER_SAFE =
    # File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1175
    false
  • HTTPVersion =
    # File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 393
    '1.1'
  • IDEMPOTENT_METHODS_ = Internal use only
    # File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1542
    %w/GET HEAD PUT DELETE OPTIONS TRACE/
  • ProxyMod = Internal use only
    # File 'lib/net/http/backward.rb', line 7
    ProxyDelta
  • Revision =
    # File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 392
    %q$Revision$.split[1]
  • SSL_ATTRIBUTES =
    # File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 865
    [
      :ca_file,
      :ca_path,
      :cert,
      :cert_store,
      :ciphers,
      :extra_chain_cert,
      :key,
      :ssl_timeout,
      :ssl_version,
      :min_version,
      :max_version,
      :verify_callback,
      :verify_depth,
      :verify_mode,
      :verify_hostname,
    ]
  • SSL_IVNAMES =
    # File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 848
    [
      :@ca_file,
      :@ca_path,
      :@cert,
      :@cert_store,
      :@ciphers,
      :@extra_chain_cert,
      :@key,
      :@ssl_timeout,
      :@ssl_version,
      :@min_version,
      :@max_version,
      :@verify_callback,
      :@verify_depth,
      :@verify_mode,
      :@verify_hostname,
    ]
  • STATUS_CODES =
    # File 'lib/net/http/status.rb', line 22
    {
      100 => 'Continue',
      101 => 'Switching Protocols',
      102 => 'Processing',
      103 => 'Early Hints',
      200 => 'OK',
      201 => 'Created',
      202 => 'Accepted',
      203 => 'Non-Authoritative Information',
      204 => 'No Content',
      205 => 'Reset Content',
      206 => 'Partial Content',
      207 => 'Multi-Status',
      208 => 'Already Reported',
      226 => 'IM Used',
      300 => 'Multiple Choices',
      301 => 'Moved Permanently',
      302 => 'Found',
      303 => 'See Other',
      304 => 'Not Modified',
      305 => 'Use Proxy',
      307 => 'Temporary Redirect',
      308 => 'Permanent Redirect',
      400 => 'Bad Request',
      401 => 'Unauthorized',
      402 => 'Payment Required',
      403 => 'Forbidden',
      404 => 'Not Found',
      405 => 'Method Not Allowed',
      406 => 'Not Acceptable',
      407 => 'Proxy Authentication Required',
      408 => 'Request Timeout',
      409 => 'Conflict',
      410 => 'Gone',
      411 => 'Length Required',
      412 => 'Precondition Failed',
      413 => 'Payload Too Large',
      414 => 'URI Too Long',
      415 => 'Unsupported Media Type',
      416 => 'Range Not Satisfiable',
      417 => 'Expectation Failed',
      421 => 'Misdirected Request',
      422 => 'Unprocessable Entity',
      423 => 'Locked',
      424 => 'Failed Dependency',
      426 => 'Upgrade Required',
      428 => 'Precondition Required',
      429 => 'Too Many Requests',
      431 => 'Request Header Fields Too Large',
      451 => 'Unavailable For Legal Reasons',
      500 => 'Internal Server Error',
      501 => 'Not Implemented',
      502 => 'Bad Gateway',
      503 => 'Service Unavailable',
      504 => 'Gateway Timeout',
      505 => 'HTTP Version Not Supported',
      506 => 'Variant Also Negotiates',
      507 => 'Insufficient Storage',
      508 => 'Loop Detected',
      510 => 'Not Extended',
      511 => 'Network Authentication Required',
    }
  • VERSION =
    # File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 391
    "0.1.0"

Class Attribute Summary

Class Method Summary

Instance Attribute Summary

Instance Method Summary

Constructor Details

.new(address, port = nil, p_addr = :ENV, p_port = nil, p_user = nil, p_pass = nil, p_no_proxy = nil) ⇒ HTTP

Creates a new HTTP object without opening a TCP connection or HTTP session.

The #address should be a DNS hostname or IP address, the #port is the port the server operates on. If no #port is given the default port for HTTP or HTTPS is used.

If none of the p_ arguments are given, the proxy host and port are taken from the http_proxy environment variable (or its uppercase equivalent) if present. If the proxy requires authentication you must supply it by hand. See URI::Generic#find_proxy for details of proxy detection from the environment. To disable proxy detection set p_addr to nil.

If you are connecting to a custom proxy, p_addr specifies the DNS name or IP address of the proxy host, p_port the port to use to access the proxy, p_user and p_pass the username and password if authorization is required to use the proxy, and p_no_proxy hosts which do not use the proxy.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 648

def HTTP.new(address, port = nil, p_addr = :ENV, p_port = nil, p_user = nil, p_pass = nil, p_no_proxy = nil)
  http = super address, port

  if proxy_class? then # from Net::HTTP::Proxy()
    http.proxy_from_env = @proxy_from_env
    http.proxy_address  = @proxy_address
    http.proxy_port     = @proxy_port
    http.proxy_user     = @proxy_user
    http.proxy_pass     = @proxy_pass
  elsif p_addr == :ENV then
    http.proxy_from_env = true
  else
    if p_addr && p_no_proxy && !URI::Generic.use_proxy?(p_addr, p_addr, p_port, p_no_proxy)
      p_addr = nil
      p_port = nil
    end
    http.proxy_address = p_addr
    http.proxy_port    = p_port || default_port
    http.proxy_user    = p_user
    http.proxy_pass    = p_pass
  end

  http
end

#initialize(address, port = nil) ⇒ HTTP

Creates a new HTTP object for the specified server address, without opening the TCP connection or initializing the HTTP session. The #address should be a DNS hostname or IP address.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 676

def initialize(address, port = nil)
  @address = address
  @port    = (port || HTTP.default_port)
  @ipaddr = nil
  @local_host = nil
  @local_port = nil
  @curr_http_version = HTTPVersion
  @keep_alive_timeout = 2
  @last_communicated = nil
  @close_on_empty_response = false
  @socket  = nil
  @started = false
  @open_timeout = 60
  @read_timeout = 60
  @write_timeout = 60
  @continue_timeout = nil
  @max_retries = 1
  @debug_output = nil

  @proxy_from_env = false
  @proxy_uri      = nil
  @proxy_address  = nil
  @proxy_port     = nil
  @proxy_user     = nil
  @proxy_pass     = nil

  @use_ssl = false
  @ssl_context = nil
  @ssl_session = nil
  @sspi_enabled = false
  SSL_IVNAMES.each do |ivname|
    instance_variable_set ivname, nil
  end
end

Class Attribute Details

.is_version_1_1? (readonly)

This method is for internal use only.

Alias for .version_1_1?.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 420

alias is_version_1_1? version_1_1?   #:nodoc:

.is_version_1_2? (readonly)

This method is for internal use only.

Alias for .version_1_2?.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 421

alias is_version_1_2? version_1_2?   #:nodoc:

.proxy_address (readonly)

Address of proxy host. If HTTP does not use a proxy, nil.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1123

attr_reader :proxy_address

.proxy_class?Boolean (readonly)

returns true if self is a class which was created by HTTP::Proxy.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1118

def proxy_class?
  defined?(@is_proxy_class) ? @is_proxy_class : false
end

.proxy_pass (readonly)

User password for accessing proxy. If HTTP does not use a proxy, nil.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1133

attr_reader :proxy_pass

.proxy_port (readonly)

Port number of proxy host. If HTTP does not use a proxy, nil.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1126

attr_reader :proxy_port

.proxy_user (readonly)

User name for accessing proxy. If HTTP does not use a proxy, nil.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1129

attr_reader :proxy_user

.version_1_1?Boolean (readonly) Also known as: .is_version_1_1?

This method is for internal use only.
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 415

def HTTP.version_1_1?  #:nodoc:
  false
end

.version_1_2 (readonly)

Turns on net/http 1.2 (Ruby 1.8) features. Defaults to ON in Ruby 1.8 or later.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 405

def HTTP.version_1_2
  true
end

.version_1_2?Boolean (readonly) Also known as: .is_version_1_2?

Returns true if net/http is in version 1.2 mode. Defaults to true.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 411

def HTTP.version_1_2?
  true
end

Class Method Details

.default_port

The default port to use for HTTP requests; defaults to 80.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 554

def HTTP.default_port
  http_default_port()
end

.get(uri_or_host, path_or_headers = nil, port = nil)

Sends a GET request to the target and returns the HTTP response as a string. The target can either be specified as (uri, headers), or as (host, path, #port = 80); so:

print Net::HTTP.get(URI('http://www.example.com/index.html'))

or:

print Net::HTTP.get('www.example.com', '/index.html')

you can also specify request headers:

Net::HTTP.get(URI('http://www.example.com/index.html'), { 'Accept' => 'text/html' })
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 466

def HTTP.get(uri_or_host, path_or_headers = nil, port = nil)
  get_response(uri_or_host, path_or_headers, port).body
end

.get_print(uri_or_host, path_or_headers = nil, port = nil)

Gets the body text from the target and outputs it to $stdout. The target can either be specified as (uri, headers), or as (host, path, #port = 80); so:

Net::HTTP.get_print URI('http://www.example.com/index.html')

or:

Net::HTTP.get_print 'www.example.com', '/index.html'

you can also specify request headers:

Net::HTTP.get_print URI('http://www.example.com/index.html'), { 'Accept' => 'text/html' }
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 443

def HTTP.get_print(uri_or_host, path_or_headers = nil, port = nil)
  get_response(uri_or_host, path_or_headers, port) {|res|
    res.read_body do |chunk|
      $stdout.print chunk
    end
  }
  nil
end

.get_response(uri_or_host, path_or_headers = nil, port = nil, &block)

Sends a GET request to the target and returns the HTTP response as a HTTPResponse object. The target can either be specified as (uri, headers), or as (host, path, #port = 80); so:

res = Net::HTTP.get_response(URI('http://www.example.com/index.html'))
print res.body

or:

res = Net::HTTP.get_response('www.example.com', '/index.html')
print res.body

you can also specify request headers:

Net::HTTP.get_response(URI('http://www.example.com/index.html'), { 'Accept' => 'text/html' })
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 486

def HTTP.get_response(uri_or_host, path_or_headers = nil, port = nil, &block)
  if path_or_headers && !path_or_headers.is_a?(Hash)
    host = uri_or_host
    path = path_or_headers
    new(host, port || HTTP.default_port).start {|http|
      return http.request_get(path, &block)
    }
  else
    uri = uri_or_host
    headers = path_or_headers
    start(uri.hostname, uri.port,
          :use_ssl => uri.scheme == 'https') {|http|
      return http.request_get(uri, headers, &block)
    }
  end
end

.http_default_port

The default port to use for HTTP requests; defaults to 80.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 559

def HTTP.http_default_port
  80
end

.https_default_port

The default port to use for HTTPS requests; defaults to 443.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 564

def HTTP.https_default_port
  443
end

.newobj

This method is for internal use only.
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 625

alias newobj new # :nodoc:

.post(url, data, header = nil)

Posts data to the specified URI object.

Example:

require 'net/http'
require 'uri'

Net::HTTP.post URI('http://www.example.com/api/search'),
               { "q" => "ruby", "max" => "50" }.to_json,
               "Content-Type" => "application/json"
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 514

def HTTP.post(url, data, header = nil)
  start(url.hostname, url.port,
        :use_ssl => url.scheme == 'https' ) {|http|
    http.post(url, data, header)
  }
end

.post_form(url, params)

Posts HTML form data to the specified URI object. The form data must be provided as a Hash mapping from String to String. Example:

{ "cmd" => "search", "q" => "ruby", "max" => "50" }

This method also does Basic Authentication iff url.user exists. But userinfo for authentication is deprecated (RFC3986). So this feature will be removed.

Example:

require 'net/http'
require 'uri'

Net::HTTP.post_form URI('http://www.example.com/search.cgi'),
                    { "q" => "ruby", "max" => "50" }
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 539

def HTTP.post_form(url, params)
  req = Post.new(url)
  req.form_data = params
  req.basic_auth url.user, url.password if url.user
  start(url.hostname, url.port,
        :use_ssl => url.scheme == 'https' ) {|http|
    http.request(req)
  }
end

Proxy(p_addr = :ENV, p_port = nil, p_user = nil, p_pass = nil)

Creates an HTTP proxy class which behaves like HTTP, but performs all access via the specified proxy.

This class is obsolete. You may pass these same parameters directly to .new. See .new for details of the arguments.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1095

def HTTP.Proxy(p_addr = :ENV, p_port = nil, p_user = nil, p_pass = nil)
  return self unless p_addr

  Class.new(self) {
    @is_proxy_class = true

    if p_addr == :ENV then
      @proxy_from_env = true
      @proxy_address = nil
      @proxy_port    = nil
    else
      @proxy_from_env = false
      @proxy_address = p_addr
      @proxy_port    = p_port || default_port
    end

    @proxy_user = p_user
    @proxy_pass = p_pass
  }
end

.socket_type

This method is for internal use only.

obsolete

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 568

def HTTP.socket_type   #:nodoc: obsolete
  BufferedIO
end

.start(address, port, p_addr, p_port, p_user, p_pass, &block) .start(address, port = nil, p_addr = :ENV, p_port = nil, p_user = nil, p_pass = nil, opt, &block)

Creates a new HTTP object, then additionally opens the TCP connection and HTTP session.

Arguments are the following:

address

hostname or IP address of the server

port

port of the server

p_addr

address of proxy

p_port

port of proxy

p_user

user of proxy

p_pass

pass of proxy

opt

optional hash

opt sets following values by its accessor. The keys are ipaddr, ca_file, ca_path, cert, cert_store, ciphers, keep_alive_timeout, close_on_empty_response, key, open_timeout, read_timeout, write_timeout, ssl_timeout, ssl_version, use_ssl, verify_callback, verify_depth and verify_mode. If you set :use_ssl as true, you can use https and default value of verify_mode is set as OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_PEER.

If the optional block is given, the newly created HTTP object is passed to it and closed when the block finishes. In this case, the return value of this method is the return value of the block. If no block is given, the return value of this method is the newly created HTTP object itself, and the caller is responsible for closing it upon completion using the finish() method.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 602

def HTTP.start(address, *arg, &block) # :yield: http
  arg.pop if opt = Hash.try_convert(arg[-1])
  port, p_addr, p_port, p_user, p_pass = *arg
  p_addr = :ENV if arg.size < 2
  port = https_default_port if !port && opt && opt[:use_ssl]
  http = new(address, port, p_addr, p_port, p_user, p_pass)
  http.ipaddr = opt[:ipaddr] if opt && opt[:ipaddr]

  if opt
    if opt[:use_ssl]
      opt = {verify_mode: OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_PEER}.update(opt)
    end
    http.methods.grep(/\A(\w+)=\z/) do |meth|
      key = $1.to_sym
      opt.key?(key) or next
      http.__send__(meth, opt[key])
    end
  end

  http.start(&block)
end

Instance Attribute Details

#active? (readonly)

This method is for internal use only.

Alias for #started?.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 827

alias active? started?   #:nodoc: obsolete

#address (readonly)

The DNS host name or IP address to connect to.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 730

attr_reader :address

#ca_file (rw)

Sets path of a CA certification file in PEM format.

The file can contain several CA certificates.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 886

attr_accessor :ca_file

#ca_path (rw)

Sets path of a CA certification directory containing certifications in PEM format.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 890

attr_accessor :ca_path

#cert (rw)

Sets an OpenSSL::X509::Certificate object as client certificate. (This method is appeared in Michal Rokos's OpenSSL extension).

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 894

attr_accessor :cert

#cert_store (rw)

Sets the X509::Store to verify peer certificate.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 897

attr_accessor :cert_store

#ciphers (rw)

Sets the available ciphers. See OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext#ciphers=

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 900

attr_accessor :ciphers

#close_on_empty_response (rw)

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 829

attr_accessor :close_on_empty_response

#continue_timeout (rw)

Seconds to wait for 100 Continue response. If the HTTP object does not receive a response in this many seconds it sends the request body. The default value is nil.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 808

attr_reader :continue_timeout

#continue_timeout=(sec) (rw)

Setter for the continue_timeout attribute.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 811

def continue_timeout=(sec)
  @socket.continue_timeout = sec if @socket
  @continue_timeout = sec
end

#extra_chain_cert (rw)

Sets the extra X509 certificates to be added to the certificate chain. See OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext#extra_chain_cert=

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 904

attr_accessor :extra_chain_cert

#ipaddr (rw)

The IP address to connect to/used to connect to

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 748

def ipaddr
  started? ?  @socket.io.peeraddr[3] : @ipaddr
end

#ipaddr=(addr) (rw)

Set the IP address to connect to

Raises:

  • (IOError)
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 753

def ipaddr=(addr)
  raise IOError, "ipaddr value changed, but session already started" if started?
  @ipaddr = addr
end

#keep_alive_timeout (rw)

Seconds to reuse the connection of the previous request. If the idle time is less than this Keep-Alive Timeout, HTTP reuses the TCP/IP socket used by the previous communication. The default value is 2 seconds.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 820

attr_accessor :keep_alive_timeout

#key (rw)

Sets an OpenSSL::PKey::RSA or OpenSSL::PKey::DSA object. (This method is appeared in Michal Rokos's OpenSSL extension.)

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 908

attr_accessor :key

#local_host (rw)

The local host used to establish the connection.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 736

attr_accessor :local_host

#local_port (rw)

The local port used to establish the connection.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 739

attr_accessor :local_port

#max_retries (rw)

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 791

attr_reader :max_retries

#max_retries=(retries) (rw)

Maximum number of times to retry an idempotent request in case of Net::ReadTimeout, IOError, EOFError, Errno::ECONNRESET, Errno::ECONNABORTED, Errno::EPIPE, OpenSSL::SSL::SSLError, Timeout::Error. Should be a non-negative integer number. Zero means no retries. The default value is 1.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 783

def max_retries=(retries)
  retries = retries.to_int
  if retries < 0
    raise ArgumentError, 'max_retries should be non-negative integer number'
  end
  @max_retries = retries
end

#max_version (rw)

Sets the maximum SSL version. See OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext#max_version=

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 920

attr_accessor :max_version

#min_version (rw)

Sets the minimum SSL version. See OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext#min_version=

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 917

attr_accessor :min_version

#open_timeout (rw)

Number of seconds to wait for the connection to open. Any number may be used, including Floats for fractional seconds. If the HTTP object cannot open a connection in this many seconds, it raises a Net::OpenTimeout exception. The default value is 60 seconds.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 762

attr_accessor :open_timeout

#port (readonly)

The port number to connect to.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 733

attr_reader :port

#proxy?Boolean (readonly)

True if requests for this connection will be proxied

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1137

def proxy?
  !!(@proxy_from_env ? proxy_uri : @proxy_address)
end

#proxy_address (rw) Also known as: #proxyaddr

The address of the proxy server, if one is configured.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1156

def proxy_address
  if @proxy_from_env then
    proxy_uri&.hostname
  else
    @proxy_address
  end
end

#proxy_address=(value) (rw)

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 742

attr_writer :proxy_address

#proxy_from_env=(value) (rw)

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 741

attr_writer :proxy_from_env

#proxy_from_env?Boolean (rw)

True if the proxy for this connection is determined from the environment

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1142

def proxy_from_env?
  @proxy_from_env
end

#proxy_pass (rw)

The password of the proxy server, if one is configured.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1190

def proxy_pass
  if ENVIRONMENT_VARIABLE_IS_MULTIUSER_SAFE && @proxy_from_env
    proxy_uri&.password
  else
    @proxy_pass
  end
end

#proxy_pass=(value) (rw)

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 745

attr_writer :proxy_pass

#proxy_port (rw) Also known as: #proxyport

The port of the proxy server, if one is configured.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1165

def proxy_port
  if @proxy_from_env then
    proxy_uri&.port
  else
    @proxy_port
  end
end

#proxy_port=(value) (rw)

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 743

attr_writer :proxy_port

#proxy_user (rw)

The username of the proxy server, if one is configured.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1181

def proxy_user
  if ENVIRONMENT_VARIABLE_IS_MULTIUSER_SAFE && @proxy_from_env
    proxy_uri&.user
  else
    @proxy_user
  end
end

#proxy_user=(value) (rw)

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 744

attr_writer :proxy_user

#proxyaddr (readonly)

This method is for internal use only.

Alias for #proxy_address.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1198

alias proxyaddr proxy_address   #:nodoc: obsolete

#proxyport (readonly)

This method is for internal use only.

Alias for #proxy_port.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1199

alias proxyport proxy_port      #:nodoc: obsolete

#read_timeout (rw)

Number of seconds to wait for one block to be read (via one read(2) call). Any number may be used, including Floats for fractional seconds. If the HTTP object cannot read data in this many seconds, it raises a Net::ReadTimeout exception. The default value is 60 seconds.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 768

attr_reader :read_timeout

#read_timeout=(sec) (rw)

Setter for the read_timeout attribute.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 794

def read_timeout=(sec)
  @socket.read_timeout = sec if @socket
  @read_timeout = sec
end

#ssl_timeout (rw)

Sets the SSL timeout seconds.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 911

attr_accessor :ssl_timeout

#ssl_version (rw)

Sets the SSL version. See OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext#ssl_version=

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 914

attr_accessor :ssl_version

#started?Boolean (readonly) Also known as: #active?

Returns true if the HTTP session has been started.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 823

def started?
  @started
end

#use_ssl=(flag) (rw)

Turn on/off SSL. This flag must be set before starting session. If you change use_ssl value after session started, a HTTP object raises IOError.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 840

def use_ssl=(flag)
  flag = flag ? true : false
  if started? and @use_ssl != flag
    raise IOError, "use_ssl value changed, but session already started"
  end
  @use_ssl = flag
end

#use_ssl?Boolean (rw)

Returns true if SSL/TLS is being used with HTTP.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 832

def use_ssl?
  @use_ssl
end

#verify_callback (rw)

Sets the verify callback for the server certification verification.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 923

attr_accessor :verify_callback

#verify_depth (rw)

Sets the maximum depth for the certificate chain verification.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 926

attr_accessor :verify_depth

#verify_hostname (rw)

Sets to check the server certificate is valid for the hostname. See OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext#verify_hostname=

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 936

attr_accessor :verify_hostname

#verify_mode (rw)

Sets the flags for server the certification verification at beginning of SSL/TLS session.

OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_NONE or OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_PEER are acceptable.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 932

attr_accessor :verify_mode

#write_timeout (rw)

Number of seconds to wait for one block to be written (via one write(2) call). Any number may be used, including Floats for fractional seconds. If the HTTP object cannot write data in this many seconds, it raises a Net::WriteTimeout exception. The default value is 60 seconds. Net::WriteTimeout is not raised on Windows.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 775

attr_reader :write_timeout

#write_timeout=(sec) (rw)

Setter for the write_timeout attribute.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 800

def write_timeout=(sec)
  @socket.write_timeout = sec if @socket
  @write_timeout = sec
end

Instance Method Details

#addr_port (private)

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1677

def addr_port
  addr = address
  addr = "[#{addr}]" if addr.include?(":")
  default_port = use_ssl? ? HTTP.https_default_port : HTTP.http_default_port
  default_port == port ? addr : "#{addr}:#{port}"
end

#begin_transport(req) (private)

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1594

def begin_transport(req)
  if @socket.closed?
    connect
  elsif @last_communicated
    if @last_communicated + @keep_alive_timeout < Process.clock_gettime(Process::CLOCK_MONOTONIC)
      D 'Conn close because of keep_alive_timeout'
      @socket.close
      connect
    elsif @socket.io.to_io.wait_readable(0) && @socket.eof?
      D "Conn close because of EOF"
      @socket.close
      connect
    end
  end

  if not req.response_body_permitted? and @close_on_empty_response
    req['connection'] ||= 'close'
  end

  req.update_uri address, port, use_ssl?
  req['host'] ||= addr_port()
end

#conn_address (private)

This method is for internal use only.

without proxy, obsolete

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1205

def conn_address # :nodoc:
  @ipaddr || address()
end

#conn_port (private)

This method is for internal use only.
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1209

def conn_port # :nodoc:
  port()
end

#connect (private)

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 975

def connect
  if proxy? then
    conn_addr = proxy_address
    conn_port = proxy_port
  else
    conn_addr = conn_address
    conn_port = port
  end

  D "opening connection to #{conn_addr}:#{conn_port}..."
  s = Timeout.timeout(@open_timeout, Net::OpenTimeout) {
    begin
      TCPSocket.open(conn_addr, conn_port, @local_host, @local_port)
    rescue => e
      raise e, "Failed to open TCP connection to " +
        "#{conn_addr}:#{conn_port} (#{e.message})"
    end
  }
  s.setsockopt(Socket::IPPROTO_TCP, Socket::TCP_NODELAY, 1)
  D "opened"
  if use_ssl?
    if proxy?
      plain_sock = BufferedIO.new(s, read_timeout: @read_timeout,
                                  write_timeout: @write_timeout,
                                  continue_timeout: @continue_timeout,
                                  debug_output: @debug_output)
      buf = "CONNECT #{conn_address}:#{@port} HTTP/#{HTTPVersion}\r\n"
      buf << "Host: #{@address}:#{@port}\r\n"
      if proxy_user
        credential = ["#{proxy_user}:#{proxy_pass}"].pack('m0')
        buf << "Proxy-Authorization: Basic #{credential}\r\n"
      end
      buf << "\r\n"
      plain_sock.write(buf)
      HTTPResponse.read_new(plain_sock).value
      # assuming nothing left in buffers after successful CONNECT response
    end

    ssl_parameters = Hash.new
    iv_list = instance_variables
    SSL_IVNAMES.each_with_index do |ivname, i|
      if iv_list.include?(ivname)
        value = instance_variable_get(ivname)
        unless value.nil?
          ssl_parameters[SSL_ATTRIBUTES[i]] = value
        end
      end
    end
    @ssl_context = OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext.new
    @ssl_context.set_params(ssl_parameters)
    @ssl_context.session_cache_mode =
      OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext::SESSION_CACHE_CLIENT |
      OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext::SESSION_CACHE_NO_INTERNAL_STORE
    @ssl_context.session_new_cb = proc {|sock, sess| @ssl_session = sess }
    D "starting SSL for #{conn_addr}:#{conn_port}..."
    s = OpenSSL::SSL::SSLSocket.new(s, @ssl_context)
    s.sync_close = true
    # Server Name Indication (SNI) RFC 3546
    s.hostname = @address if s.respond_to? :hostname=
    if @ssl_session and
       Process.clock_gettime(Process::CLOCK_REALTIME) < @ssl_session.time.to_f + @ssl_session.timeout
      s.session = @ssl_session
    end
    ssl_socket_connect(s, @open_timeout)
    if (@ssl_context.verify_mode != OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_NONE) && @ssl_context.verify_hostname
      s.post_connection_check(@address)
    end
    D "SSL established, protocol: #{s.ssl_version}, cipher: #{s.cipher[0]}"
  end
  @socket = BufferedIO.new(s, read_timeout: @read_timeout,
                           write_timeout: @write_timeout,
                           continue_timeout: @continue_timeout,
                           debug_output: @debug_output)
  on_connect
rescue => exception
  if s
    D "Conn close because of connect error #{exception}"
    s.close
  end
  raise
end

#copy(path, initheader = nil)

Sends a COPY request to the path and gets a response, as an HTTPResponse object.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1380

def copy(path, initheader = nil)
  request(Copy.new(path, initheader))
end

D(msg) (private)

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1684

def D(msg)
  return unless @debug_output
  @debug_output << msg
  @debug_output << "\n"
end

#delete(path, initheader = {'Depth' => 'Infinity'})

Sends a DELETE request to the path and gets a response, as an HTTPResponse object.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1368

def delete(path, initheader = {'Depth' => 'Infinity'})
  request(Delete.new(path, initheader))
end

#do_finish (private)

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1069

def do_finish
  @started = false
  @socket.close if @socket
  @socket = nil
end

#do_start (private)

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 969

def do_start
  connect
  @started = true
end

#edit_path(path) (private)

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1213

def edit_path(path)
  if proxy?
    if path.start_with?("ftp://") || use_ssl?
      path
    else
      "http://#{addr_port}#{path}"
    end
  else
    path
  end
end

#end_transport(req, res) (private)

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1617

def end_transport(req, res)
  @curr_http_version = res.http_version
  @last_communicated = nil
  if @socket.closed?
    D 'Conn socket closed'
  elsif not res.body and @close_on_empty_response
    D 'Conn close'
    @socket.close
  elsif keep_alive?(req, res)
    D 'Conn keep-alive'
    @last_communicated = Process.clock_gettime(Process::CLOCK_MONOTONIC)
  else
    D 'Conn close'
    @socket.close
  end
end

#finish

Finishes the HTTP session and closes the TCP connection. Raises IOError if the session has not been started.

Raises:

  • (IOError)
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1064

def finish
  raise IOError, 'HTTP session not yet started' unless started?
  do_finish
end

#get(path, initheader = nil, dest = nil, &block)

Retrieves data from path on the connected-to host which may be an absolute path String or a URI to extract the path from.

initheader must be a Hash like { 'Accept' => '/', … }, and it defaults to an empty hash. If initheader doesn't have the key 'accept-encoding', then a value of “gzip;q=1.0,deflate;q=0.6,identity;q=0.3” is used, so that gzip compression is used in preference to deflate compression, which is used in preference to no compression. Ruby doesn't have libraries to support the compress (Lempel-Ziv) compression, so that is not supported. The intent of this is to reduce bandwidth by default. If this routine sets up compression, then it does the decompression also, removing the header as well to prevent confusion. Otherwise it leaves the body as it found it.

This method returns a HTTPResponse object.

If called with a block, yields each fragment of the entity body in turn as a string as it is read from the socket. Note that in this case, the returned response object will not contain a (meaningful) body.

dest argument is obsolete. It still works but you must not use it.

This method never raises an exception.

response = http.get('/index.html')

# using block
File.open('result.txt', 'w') {|f|

http.get('/~foo/') do |str|

    f.write str
  end
}
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1268

def get(path, initheader = nil, dest = nil, &block) # :yield: body_segment
  res = nil
  request(Get.new(path, initheader)) {|r|
    r.read_body dest, &block
    res = r
  }
  res
end

#get2(path, initheader = nil, &block)

This method is for internal use only.

Alias for #request_get.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1473

alias get2   request_get    #:nodoc: obsolete

#head(path, initheader = nil)

Gets only the header from path on the connected-to host. header is a Hash like { 'Accept' => '/', … }.

This method returns a HTTPResponse object.

This method never raises an exception.

response = nil
Net::HTTP.start('some.www.server', 80) {|http|
  response = http.head('/index.html')
}
p response['content-type']
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1290

def head(path, initheader = nil)
  request(Head.new(path, initheader))
end

#head2(path, initheader = nil, &block)

This method is for internal use only.

Alias for #request_head.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1474

alias head2  request_head   #:nodoc: obsolete

#inspect

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 711

def inspect
  "#<#{self.class} #{@address}:#{@port} open=#{started?}>"
end

#keep_alive?(req, res) ⇒ Boolean (private)

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1634

def keep_alive?(req, res)
  return false if req.connection_close?
  if @curr_http_version <= '1.0'
    res.connection_keep_alive?
  else   # HTTP/1.1 or later
    not res.connection_close?
  end
end

#lock(path, body, initheader = nil)

Sends a LOCK request to the path and gets a response, as an HTTPResponse object.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1344

def lock(path, body, initheader = nil)
  request(Lock.new(path, initheader), body)
end

#mkcol(path, body = nil, initheader = nil)

Sends a MKCOL request to the path and gets a response, as an HTTPResponse object.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1386

def mkcol(path, body = nil, initheader = nil)
  request(Mkcol.new(path, initheader), body)
end

#move(path, initheader = nil)

Sends a MOVE request to the path and gets a response, as an HTTPResponse object.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1374

def move(path, initheader = nil)
  request(Move.new(path, initheader))
end

#on_connect (private)

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1058

def on_connect
end

#options(path, initheader = nil)

Sends a OPTIONS request to the path and gets a response, as an HTTPResponse object.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1356

def options(path, initheader = nil)
  request(Options.new(path, initheader))
end

#patch(path, data, initheader = nil, dest = nil, &block)

Sends a PATCH request to the path and gets a response, as an HTTPResponse object.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1328

def patch(path, data, initheader = nil, dest = nil, &block) # :yield: body_segment
  send_entity(path, data, initheader, dest, Patch, &block)
end

#peer_cert

Returns the X.509 certificates the server presented.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 939

def peer_cert
  if not use_ssl? or not @socket
    return nil
  end
  @socket.io.peer_cert
end

#post(path, data, initheader = nil, dest = nil, &block)

Posts data (must be a String) to path. header must be a Hash like { 'Accept' => '/', … }.

This method returns a HTTPResponse object.

If called with a block, yields each fragment of the entity body in turn as a string as it is read from the socket. Note that in this case, the returned response object will not contain a (meaningful) body.

dest argument is obsolete. It still works but you must not use it.

This method never raises exception.

response = http.post('/cgi-bin/search.rb', 'query=foo')

# using block
File.open('result.txt', 'w') {|f|

http.post('/cgi-bin/search.rb', 'query=foo') do |str|

    f.write str
  end
}

You should set Content-Type: header field for POST. If no Content-Type: field given, this method uses “application/x-www-form-urlencoded” by default.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1322

def post(path, data, initheader = nil, dest = nil, &block) # :yield: body_segment
  send_entity(path, data, initheader, dest, Post, &block)
end

#post2(path, data, initheader = nil, &block)

This method is for internal use only.

Alias for #request_post.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1475

alias post2  request_post   #:nodoc: obsolete

#propfind(path, body = nil, initheader = {'Depth' => '0'})

Sends a PROPFIND request to the path and gets a response, as an HTTPResponse object.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1362

def propfind(path, body = nil, initheader = {'Depth' => '0'})
  request(Propfind.new(path, initheader), body)
end

#proppatch(path, body, initheader = nil)

Sends a PROPPATCH request to the path and gets a response, as an HTTPResponse object.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1338

def proppatch(path, body, initheader = nil)
  request(Proppatch.new(path, initheader), body)
end

#proxy_uri

This method is for internal use only.

The proxy URI determined from the environment for this connection.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1147

def proxy_uri # :nodoc:
  return if @proxy_uri == false
  @proxy_uri ||= URI::HTTP.new(
    "http".freeze, nil, address, port, nil, nil, nil, nil, nil
  ).find_proxy || false
  @proxy_uri || nil
end

#put(path, data, initheader = nil)

This method is for internal use only.
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1332

def put(path, data, initheader = nil)   #:nodoc:
  request(Put.new(path, initheader), data)
end

#put2(path, data, initheader = nil, &block)

This method is for internal use only.

Alias for #request_put.

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# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1476

alias put2   request_put    #:nodoc: obsolete

#request(req, body = nil, &block)

Sends an HTTPRequest object req to the HTTP server.

If req is a HTTP::Post or HTTP::Put request containing data, the data is also sent. Providing data for a HTTP::Head or HTTP::Get request results in an ArgumentError.

Returns an HTTPResponse object.

When called with a block, passes an HTTPResponse object to the block. The body of the response will not have been read yet; the block can process it using HTTPResponse#read_body, if desired.

This method never raises Net.* exceptions.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1510

def request(req, body = nil, &block)  # :yield: response
  unless started?
    start {
      req['connection'] ||= 'close'
      return request(req, body, &block)
    }
  end
  if proxy_user()
    req.proxy_basic_auth proxy_user(), proxy_pass() unless use_ssl?
  end
  req.set_body_internal body
  res = transport_request(req, &block)
  if sspi_auth?(res)
    sspi_auth(req)
    res = transport_request(req, &block)
  end
  res
end

#request_get(path, initheader = nil, &block) Also known as: #get2

Sends a GET request to the path. Returns the response as a HTTPResponse object.

When called with a block, passes an HTTPResponse object to the block. The body of the response will not have been read yet; the block can process it using HTTPResponse#read_body, if desired.

Returns the response.

This method never raises Net.* exceptions.

response = http.request_get('/index.html')
# The entity body is already read in this case.
p response['content-type']
puts response.body

# Using a block

http.request_get('/index.html') {|response|

  p response['content-type']
  response.read_body do |str|   # read body now
    print str
  end
}
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1421

def request_get(path, initheader = nil, &block) # :yield: response
  request(Get.new(path, initheader), &block)
end

#request_head(path, initheader = nil, &block) Also known as: #head2

Sends a HEAD request to the path and returns the response as a HTTPResponse object.

Returns the response.

This method never raises Net.* exceptions.

response = http.request_head('/index.html')
p response['content-type']
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1435

def request_head(path, initheader = nil, &block)
  request(Head.new(path, initheader), &block)
end

#request_post(path, data, initheader = nil, &block) Also known as: #post2

Sends a POST request to the path.

Returns the response as a HTTPResponse object.

When called with a block, the block is passed an HTTPResponse object. The body of that response will not have been read yet; the block can process it using HTTPResponse#read_body, if desired.

Returns the response.

This method never raises Net.* exceptions.

# example
response = http.request_post('/cgi-bin/nice.rb', 'datadatadata...')
p response.status
puts response.body          # body is already read in this case

# using block

http.request_post('/cgi-bin/nice.rb', 'datadatadata…') {|response|

  p response.status
  p response['content-type']
  response.read_body do |str|   # read body now
    print str
  end
}
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1465

def request_post(path, data, initheader = nil, &block) # :yield: response
  request Post.new(path, initheader), data, &block
end

#request_put(path, data, initheader = nil, &block) Also known as: #put2

This method is for internal use only.
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1469

def request_put(path, data, initheader = nil, &block)   #:nodoc:
  request Put.new(path, initheader), data, &block
end

#send_entity(path, data, initheader, dest, type, &block) (private)

Executes a request which uses a representation and returns its body.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1533

def send_entity(path, data, initheader, dest, type, &block)
  res = nil
  request(type.new(path, initheader), data) {|r|
    r.read_body dest, &block
    res = r
  }
  res
end

#send_request(name, path, data = nil, header = nil)

Sends an HTTP request to the HTTP server. Also sends a DATA string if data is given.

Returns a HTTPResponse object.

This method never raises Net.* exceptions.

response = http.send_request('GET', '/index.html')
puts response.body
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1489

def send_request(name, path, data = nil, header = nil)
  has_response_body = name != 'HEAD'
  r = HTTPGenericRequest.new(name,(data ? true : false),has_response_body,path,header)
  request r, data
end

#set_debug_output(output)

WARNING This method opens a serious security hole. Never use this method in production code.

Sets an output stream for debugging.

http = HTTP.new(hostname) http.set_debug_output $stderr http.start { .… }

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 724

def set_debug_output(output)
  warn 'Net::HTTP#set_debug_output called after HTTP started', uplevel: 1 if started?
  @debug_output = output
end

#sspi_auth(req) (private)

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1658

def sspi_auth(req)
  n = Win32::SSPI::NegotiateAuth.new
  req["Proxy-Authorization"] = "Negotiate #{n.get_initial_token}"
  # Some versions of ISA will close the connection if this isn't present.
  req["Connection"] = "Keep-Alive"
  req["Proxy-Connection"] = "Keep-Alive"
  res = transport_request(req)
  authphrase = res["Proxy-Authenticate"]  or return res
  req["Proxy-Authorization"] = "Negotiate #{n.complete_authentication(authphrase)}"
rescue => err
  raise HTTPAuthenticationError.new('HTTP authentication failed', err)
end

#sspi_auth?(res) ⇒ Boolean (private)

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1643

def sspi_auth?(res)
  return false unless @sspi_enabled
  if res.kind_of?(HTTPProxyAuthenticationRequired) and
      proxy? and res["Proxy-Authenticate"].include?("Negotiate")
    begin
      require 'win32/sspi'
      true
    rescue LoadError
      false
    end
  else
    false
  end
end

#start

Opens a TCP connection and HTTP session.

When this method is called with a block, it passes the HTTP object to the block, and closes the TCP connection and HTTP session after the block has been executed.

When called with a block, it returns the return value of the block; otherwise, it returns self.

Raises:

  • (IOError)
[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 955

def start  # :yield: http
  raise IOError, 'HTTP session already opened' if @started
  if block_given?
    begin
      do_start
      return yield(self)
    ensure
      do_finish
    end
  end
  do_start
  self
end

#trace(path, initheader = nil)

Sends a TRACE request to the path and gets a response, as an HTTPResponse object.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1392

def trace(path, initheader = nil)
  request(Trace.new(path, initheader))
end

#transport_request(req) (private)

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1544

def transport_request(req)
  count = 0
  begin
    begin_transport req
    res = catch(:response) {
      begin
        req.exec @socket, @curr_http_version, edit_path(req.path)
      rescue Errno::EPIPE
        # Failure when writing full request, but we can probably
        # still read the received response.
      end

      begin
        res = HTTPResponse.read_new(@socket)
        res.decode_content = req.decode_content
      end while res.kind_of?(HTTPInformation)

      res.uri = req.uri

      res
    }
    res.reading_body(@socket, req.response_body_permitted?) {
      yield res if block_given?
    }
  rescue Net::OpenTimeout
    raise
  rescue Net::ReadTimeout, IOError, EOFError,
         Errno::ECONNRESET, Errno::ECONNABORTED, Errno::EPIPE, Errno::ETIMEDOUT,
         # avoid a dependency on OpenSSL
         defined?(OpenSSL::SSL) ? OpenSSL::SSL::SSLError : IOError,
         Timeout::Error => exception
    if count < max_retries && IDEMPOTENT_METHODS_.include?(req.method)
      count += 1
      @socket.close if @socket
      D "Conn close because of error #{exception}, and retry"
      retry
    end
    D "Conn close because of error #{exception}"
    @socket.close if @socket
    raise
  end

  end_transport req, res
  res
rescue => exception
  D "Conn close because of error #{exception}"
  @socket.close if @socket
  raise exception
end

#unlock(path, body, initheader = nil)

Sends a UNLOCK request to the path and gets a response, as an HTTPResponse object.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/net/http.rb', line 1350

def unlock(path, body, initheader = nil)
  request(Unlock.new(path, initheader), body)
end