123456789_123456789_123456789_123456789_123456789_

Class: Logger

Relationships & Source Files
Namespace Children
Modules:
Classes:
Exceptions:
Super Chains via Extension / Inclusion / Inheritance
Instance Chain:
self, Severity
Inherits: Object
Defined in: lib/logger.rb,
lib/logger/errors.rb,
lib/logger/formatter.rb,
lib/logger/log_device.rb,
lib/logger/period.rb,
lib/logger/severity.rb,
lib/logger/version.rb

Overview

Description

The Logger class provides a simple but sophisticated logging utility that you can use to output messages.

The messages have associated levels, such as INFO or ERROR that indicate their importance. You can then give the Logger a level, and only messages at that level or higher will be printed.

The levels are:

UNKNOWN

An unknown message that should always be logged.

FATAL

An unhandleable error that results in a program crash.

ERROR

A handleable error condition.

WARN

A warning.

INFO

Generic (useful) information about system operation.

DEBUG

Low-level information for developers.

For instance, in a production system, you may have your Logger set to INFO or even WARN. When you are developing the system, however, you probably want to know about the program's internal state, and would set the Logger to DEBUG.

Note: Logger does not escape or sanitize any messages passed to it. Developers should be aware of when potentially malicious data (user-input) is passed to Logger, and manually escape the untrusted data:

logger.info("User-input: #{input.dump}")
logger.info("User-input: %p" % input)

You can use #formatter= for escaping all data.

original_formatter = Logger::Formatter.new
logger.formatter = proc { |severity, datetime, progname, msg|
  original_formatter.call(severity, datetime, progname, msg.dump)
}
logger.info(input)

Example

This creates a Logger that outputs to the standard output stream, with a level of WARN:

require 'logger'

logger = Logger.new(STDOUT)
logger.level = Logger::WARN

logger.debug("Created logger")
logger.info("Program started")
logger.warn("Nothing to do!")

path = "a_non_existent_file"

begin
  File.foreach(path) do |line|
    unless line =~ /^(\w+) = (.*)$/
      logger.error("Line in wrong format: #{line.chomp}")
    end
  end
rescue => err
  logger.fatal("Caught exception; exiting")
  logger.fatal(err)
end

Because the Logger's level is set to WARN, only the warning, error, and fatal messages are recorded. The debug and info messages are silently discarded.

Features

There are several interesting features that Logger provides, like auto-rolling of log files, setting the format of log messages, and specifying a program name in conjunction with the message. The next section shows you how to achieve these things.

HOWTOs

How to create a logger

The options below give you various choices, in more or less increasing complexity.

  1. Create a logger which logs messages to STDERR/STDOUT.

    logger = Logger.new(STDERR)
    logger = Logger.new(STDOUT)
  2. Create a logger for the file which has the specified name.

    logger = Logger.new('logfile.log')
  3. Create a logger for the specified file.

    file = File.open('foo.log', File::WRONLY | File::APPEND)
    # To create new logfile, add File::CREAT like:
    # file = File.open('foo.log', File::WRONLY | File::APPEND | File::CREAT)
    logger = Logger.new(file)
  4. Create a logger which ages the logfile once it reaches a certain size. Leave 10 “old” log files where each file is about 1,024,000 bytes.

    logger = Logger.new('foo.log', 10, 1024000)
  5. Create a logger which ages the logfile daily/weekly/monthly.

    logger = Logger.new('foo.log', 'daily')
    logger = Logger.new('foo.log', 'weekly')
    logger = Logger.new('foo.log', 'monthly')

How to log a message

Notice the different methods (#fatal, #error, #info) being used to log messages of various levels? Other methods in this family are #warn and #debug. #add is used below to log a message of an arbitrary (perhaps dynamic) level.

  1. Message in a block.

    logger.fatal { "Argument 'foo' not given." }
  2. Message as a string.

    logger.error "Argument #{@foo} mismatch."
  3. With progname.

    logger.info('initialize') { "Initializing..." }
  4. With severity.

    logger.add(Logger::FATAL) { 'Fatal error!' }

The block form allows you to create potentially complex log messages, but to delay their evaluation until and unless the message is logged. For example, if we have the following:

logger.debug { "This is a " + potentially + " expensive operation" }

If the logger's level is INFO or higher, no debug messages will be logged, and the entire block will not even be evaluated. Compare to this:

logger.debug("This is a " + potentially + " expensive operation")

Here, the string concatenation is done every time, even if the log level is not set to show the debug message.

How to close a logger

logger.close

Setting severity threshold

  1. Original interface.

    logger.sev_threshold = Logger::WARN
  2. Log4r (somewhat) compatible interface.

    logger.level = Logger::INFO
    
    # DEBUG < INFO < WARN < ERROR < FATAL < UNKNOWN
  3. Symbol or String (case insensitive)

    logger.level = :info
    logger.level = 'INFO'
    
    # :debug < :info < :warn < :error < :fatal < :unknown
  4. Constructor

    Logger.new(logdev, level: Logger::INFO)
    Logger.new(logdev, level: :info)
    Logger.new(logdev, level: 'INFO')

Format

Log messages are rendered in the output stream in a certain format by default. The default format and a sample are shown below:

Log format:

SeverityID, [DateTime #pid] SeverityLabel -- ProgName: message

Log sample:

I, [1999-03-03T02:34:24.895701 #19074]  INFO -- Main: info.

You may change the date and time format via #datetime_format=.

logger.datetime_format = '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'
      # e.g. "2004-01-03 00:54:26"

or via the constructor.

Logger.new(logdev, datetime_format: '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S')

Or, you may change the overall format via the #formatter= method.

logger.formatter = proc do |severity, datetime, progname, msg|
  "#{datetime}: #{msg}\n"
end
# e.g. "2005-09-22 08:51:08 +0900: hello world"

or via the constructor.

Logger.new(logdev, formatter: proc {|severity, datetime, progname, msg|
  "#{datetime}: #{msg}\n"
})

Constant Summary

Severity - Included

DEBUG, ERROR, FATAL, INFO, UNKNOWN, WARN

Class Method Summary

Instance Attribute Summary

Instance Method Summary

Constructor Details

.new(logdev, shift_age = 0, shift_size = 1048576) ⇒ Logger .new(logdev, shift_age = 'weekly') ⇒ Logger .new(logdev, level: :info) ⇒ Logger .new(logdev, progname: 'progname') ⇒ Logger .new(logdev, formatter: formatter) ⇒ Logger .new(logdev, datetime_format: '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S') ⇒ Logger

Args

logdev

The log device. This is a filename (String), IO object (typically STDOUT, STDERR, or an open file), nil (it writes nothing) or File::NULL (same as nil).

shift_age

Number of old log files to keep, or frequency of rotation (daily, weekly or monthly). Default value is 0, which disables log file rotation.

shift_size

Maximum logfile size in bytes (only applies when shift_age is a positive Integer). Defaults to 1048576 (1MB).

#level

Logging severity threshold. Default values is Logger::DEBUG.

#progname

Program name to include in log messages. Default value is nil.

#formatter

Logging formatter. Default values is an instance of Logger::Formatter.

#datetime_format

Date and time format. Default value is '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'.

binmode

Use binary mode on the log device. Default value is false.

shift_period_suffix

The log file suffix format for daily, weekly or monthly rotation. Default is '%Y%m%d'.

Description

Create an instance.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 380

def initialize(logdev, shift_age = 0, shift_size = 1048576, level: DEBUG,
               progname: nil, formatter: nil, datetime_format: nil,
               binmode: false, shift_period_suffix: '%Y%m%d')
  self.level = level
  self.progname = progname
  @default_formatter = Formatter.new
  self.datetime_format = datetime_format
  self.formatter = formatter
  @logdev = nil
  if logdev && logdev != File::NULL
    @logdev = LogDevice.new(logdev, shift_age: shift_age,
      shift_size: shift_size,
      shift_period_suffix: shift_period_suffix,
      binmode: binmode)
  end
end

Instance Attribute Details

#datetime_format (rw)

Returns the date format being used. See #datetime_format=

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 284

def datetime_format
  @default_formatter.datetime_format
end

#datetime_format=(datetime_format) (rw)

Set date-time format.

#datetime_format

A string suitable for passing to strftime.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 279

def datetime_format=(datetime_format)
  @default_formatter.datetime_format = datetime_format
end

#debug?Boolean (readonly)

Returns true iff the current severity level allows for the printing of DEBUG messages.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 307

def debug?; level <= DEBUG; end

#error?Boolean (readonly)

Returns true iff the current severity level allows for the printing of ERROR messages.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 328

def error?; level <= ERROR; end

#fatal?Boolean (readonly)

Returns true iff the current severity level allows for the printing of FATAL messages.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 335

def fatal?; level <= FATAL; end

#formatter (rw)

Logging formatter, as a Proc that will take four arguments and return the formatted message. The arguments are:

severity

The Severity of the log message.

time

A Time instance representing when the message was logged.

#progname

The #progname configured, or passed to the logger method.

msg

The Object the user passed to the log message; not necessarily a String.

The block should return an Object that can be written to the logging device via write. The default formatter is used when no formatter is set.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 300

attr_accessor :formatter

#info?Boolean (readonly)

Returns true iff the current severity level allows for the printing of INFO messages.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 314

def info?; level <= INFO; end

#level (rw) Also known as: #sev_threshold

Logging severity threshold (e.g. Logger::INFO).

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 245

attr_reader :level

#level=(severity) (rw) Also known as: #sev_threshold=

Set logging severity threshold.

severity

The Severity of the log message.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 250

def level=(severity)
  if severity.is_a?(Integer)
    @level = severity
  else
    case severity.to_s.downcase
    when 'debug'
      @level = DEBUG
    when 'info'
      @level = INFO
    when 'warn'
      @level = WARN
    when 'error'
      @level = ERROR
    when 'fatal'
      @level = FATAL
    when 'unknown'
      @level = UNKNOWN
    else
      raise ArgumentError, "invalid log level: #{severity}"
    end
  end
end

#progname (rw)

Program name to include in log messages.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 274

attr_accessor :progname

#sev_threshold (rw)

Alias for #level.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 302

alias sev_threshold level

#warn?Boolean (readonly)

Returns true iff the current severity level allows for the printing of WARN messages.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 321

def warn?; level <= WARN; end

Instance Method Details

#<<(msg)

Dump given message to the log device without any formatting. If no log device exists, return nil.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 485

def <<(msg)
  @logdev&.write(msg)
end

#add(severity, message = nil, progname = nil) Also known as: #log

Args

severity

Severity. Constants are defined in Logger namespace: DEBUG, INFO, WARN, ERROR, FATAL, or UNKNOWN.

message

The log message. A String or Exception.

#progname

Program name string. Can be omitted. Treated as a message if no message and block are given.

block

Can be omitted. Called to get a message string if message is nil.

Return

When the given severity is not high enough (for this particular logger), log no message, and return true.

Description

Log a message if the given severity is high enough. This is the generic logging method. Users will be more inclined to use #debug, #info, #warn, #error, and #fatal.

Message format: message can be any object, but it has to be converted to a String in order to log it. Generally, inspect is used if the given object is not a String. A special case is an Exception object, which will be printed in detail, including message, class, and backtrace. See #msg2str for the implementation if required.

Bugs

  • Logfile is not locked.

  • Append open does not need to lock file.

  • If the OS supports multi I/O, records possibly may be mixed.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 459

def add(severity, message = nil, progname = nil)
  severity ||= UNKNOWN
  if @logdev.nil? or severity < level
    return true
  end
  if progname.nil?
    progname = @progname
  end
  if message.nil?
    if block_given?
      message = yield
    else
      message = progname
      progname = @progname
    end
  end
  @logdev.write(
    format_message(format_severity(severity), Time.now, progname, message))
  true
end

#close

Close the logging device.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 572

def close
  @logdev&.close
end

#debug(progname = nil, &block) (readonly)

Log a DEBUG message.

See #info for more information.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 494

def debug(progname = nil, &block)
  add(DEBUG, nil, progname, &block)
end

#debug!

Sets the severity to DEBUG.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 310

def debug!; self.level = DEBUG; end

#error(progname = nil, &block) (readonly)

Log an ERROR message.

See #info for more information.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 546

def error(progname = nil, &block)
  add(ERROR, nil, progname, &block)
end

#error!

Sets the severity to ERROR.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 331

def error!; self.level = ERROR; end

#fatal(progname = nil, &block) (readonly)

Log a FATAL message.

See #info for more information.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 555

def fatal(progname = nil, &block)
  add(FATAL, nil, progname, &block)
end

#fatal!

Sets the severity to FATAL.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 338

def fatal!; self.level = FATAL; end

#format_message(severity, datetime, progname, msg) (private)

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 585

def format_message(severity, datetime, progname, msg)
  (@formatter || @default_formatter).call(severity, datetime, progname, msg)
end

#format_severity(severity) (private)

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 581

def format_severity(severity)
  SEV_LABEL[severity] || 'ANY'
end

#info(message) (readonly) #info(progname, &block)

Log an INFO message.

message

The message to log; does not need to be a String.

#progname

In the block form, this is the #progname to use in the log message. The default can be set with #progname=.

block

Evaluates to the message to log. This is not evaluated unless the logger's level is sufficient to log the message. This allows you to create potentially expensive logging messages that are only called when the logger is configured to show them.

Examples

logger.info("MainApp") { "Received connection from #{ip}" }
# ...
logger.info "Waiting for input from user"
# ...
logger.info { "User typed #{input}" }

You'll probably stick to the second form above, unless you want to provide a program name (which you can do with #progname= as well).

Return

See #add.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 528

def info(progname = nil, &block)
  add(INFO, nil, progname, &block)
end

#info!

Sets the severity to INFO.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 317

def info!; self.level = INFO; end

#log(severity, message = nil, progname = nil)

Alias for #add.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 479

alias log add

#reopen #reopen(logdev)

Args

logdev

The log device. This is a filename (String) or IO object (typically STDOUT, STDERR, or an open file). reopen the same filename if it is nil, do nothing for IO. Default is nil.

Description

Reopen a log device.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 413

def reopen(logdev = nil)
  @logdev&.reopen(logdev)
  self
end

#unknown(progname = nil, &block)

Log an UNKNOWN message. This will be printed no matter what the logger's level is.

See #info for more information.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 565

def unknown(progname = nil, &block)
  add(UNKNOWN, nil, progname, &block)
end

#warn(progname = nil, &block) (readonly)

Log a WARN message.

See #info for more information.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 537

def warn(progname = nil, &block)
  add(WARN, nil, progname, &block)
end

#warn!

Sets the severity to WARN.

[ GitHub ]

  
# File 'lib/logger.rb', line 324

def warn!; self.level = WARN; end