systemd is a commonly available init system (PID 1) on many Linux distributions. It offers process monitoring (including automatic restarts) and other useful features for running Puma in production.

Service Configuration

Below is a sample puma.service configuration file for systemd, which can be copied or symlinked to /etc/systemd/system/puma.service, or if desired, using an application or instance-specific name.

Note that this uses the systemd preferred "simple" type where the start command remains running in the foreground (does not fork and exit).

Description=Puma HTTP Server

# Uncomment for socket activation (see below)
# Requires=puma.socket

# {Puma} supports systemd's {Type=notify} and watchdog service
# monitoring, as of {Puma} 5.1 or later.
# On earlier versions of {Puma} or JRuby, change this to {Type=simple} and remove
# the {WatchdogSec} line.

# If your {Puma} process locks up, systemd's watchdog will restart it within seconds.

# Preferably configure a non-privileged user
# User=

# The path to your application code root directory.
# Also replace the "<YOUR_APP_PATH>" placeholders below with this path.
# Example /home/username/myapp

# Helpful for debugging socket activation, etc.
# Environment=PUMA_DEBUG=1

# SystemD will not run puma even if it is in your path. You must specify
# an absolute URL to puma. For example /usr/local/bin/puma
# Alternatively, create a binstub with `bundle binstubs puma --path ./sbin` in the WorkingDirectory
ExecStart=/<FULLPATH>/bin/puma -C <YOUR_APP_PATH>/puma.rb

# Variant: Rails start.
# ExecStart=/<FULLPATH>/bin/puma -C <YOUR_APP_PATH>/config/puma.rb ../config.ru

# Variant: Use `bundle exec puma` instead of binstub
# Variant: Specify directives inline.
# ExecStart=/<FULLPATH>/puma -b tcp:// -b ssl://



See systemd.exec for additional details.

Socket Activation

systemd and Puma also support socket activation, where systemd opens the listening socket(s) in advance and provides them to the Puma master process on startup. Among other advantages, this keeps listening sockets open across puma restarts and achieves graceful restarts, including when upgraded Puma, and is compatible with both clustered mode and application preload.

Note: Any wrapper scripts which exec, or other indirections in ExecStart may result in activated socket file descriptors being closed before reaching the puma master process.

Note: Socket activation doesn't currently work on JRuby. This is tracked in #1367.

Configure one or more ListenStream sockets in a companion *.socket unit file to use socket activation. Also, uncomment the associated Requires directive for the socket unit in the service file (see above.) Here is a sample puma.socket, matching the ports used in the above puma.service:

Description=Puma HTTP Server Accept Sockets


# AF_UNIX domain socket
# SocketUser, SocketGroup, etc. may be needed for Unix domain sockets
# ListenStream=/run/puma.sock

# Socket options matching {Puma} defaults
# Enable this if you're using {Puma} with the "low_latency" option, read more in {Puma} DSL docs and systemd docs:
# https://www.freedesktop.org/software/systemd/man/latest/systemd.socket.html#NoDelay=
# NoDelay=true


See systemd.socket for additional configuration details.

Note that the above configurations will work with Puma in either single process or cluster mode.

Sockets and symlinks

When using releases folders, you should set the socket path using the shared folder path (ex. /srv/projet/shared/tmp/puma.sock), not the release folder path (/srv/projet/releases/1234/tmp/puma.sock).

Puma will detect the release path socket as different than the one provided by systemd and attempt to bind it again, resulting in the exception There is already a server bound to:.


By default, you need to configure Puma to have binds matching with all ListenStream statements. Any mismatched systemd ListenStreams will be closed by Puma.

To automatically bind to all activated sockets, the option --bind-to-activated-sockets can be used. This matches the config DSL bind_to_activated_sockets statement. This will cause Puma to create a bind automatically for any activated socket. When systemd socket activation is not enabled, this option does nothing.

This also accepts an optional argument only (DSL: 'only') to discard any binds that's not socket activated.


Without socket activation, use systemctl as root (i.e., via sudo) as with other system services:

# After installing or making changes to puma.service
systemctl daemon-reload

# Enable so it starts on boot
systemctl enable puma.service

# Initial startup.
systemctl start puma.service

# Check status
systemctl status puma.service

# A normal restart. Warning: listener's sockets will be closed
# while a new puma process initializes.
systemctl restart puma.service

With socket activation, several but not all of these commands should be run for both socket and service:

# After installing or making changes to either puma.socket or
# puma.service.
systemctl daemon-reload

# Enable both socket and service, so they start on boot.  Alternatively
# you could leave puma.service disabled, and systemd will start it on
# the first use (with startup lag on the first request)
systemctl enable puma.socket puma.service

# Initial startup. The Requires directive (see above) ensures the
# socket is started before the service.
systemctl start puma.socket puma.service

# Check the status of both socket and service.
systemctl status puma.socket puma.service

# A "hot" restart, with systemd keeping puma.socket listening and
# providing to the new puma (master) instance.
systemctl restart puma.service

# A normal restart, needed to handle changes to
# puma.socket, such as changing the ListenStream ports. Note
# daemon-reload (above) should be run first.
systemctl restart puma.socket puma.service

Here is sample output from systemctl status with both service and socket running:

 puma.socket - {Puma} HTTP Server Accept Sockets
   Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/puma.socket; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
   Active: active (running) since Thu 2016-04-07 08:40:19 PDT; 1h 2min ago
   Listen: 0.0:9233 (Stream)
           0.0:9234 (Stream)

Apr 07 08:40:19 hx systemd[874]: Listening on {Puma} HTTP Server Accept Sockets.

 puma.service - {Puma} HTTP Server
   Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/puma.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
   Active: active (running) since Thu 2016-04-07 08:40:19 PDT; 1h 2min ago
 Main PID: 28320 (ruby)
   CGroup: /system.slice/puma.service
           ├─28320 puma 3.3 (tcp://0.0:9233,ssl://0.0:9234?key=key.pem&cert=cert.pem) [app]
           ├─28323 puma: cluster worker 0: 28320 [app]
           └─28327 puma: cluster worker 1: 28320 [app]

Apr 07 08:40:19 hx puma[28320]: {Puma} starting in cluster mode...
Apr 07 08:40:19 hx puma[28320]: * Version 3.3 (ruby 2.2-p230), codename: Jovial Platypus
Apr 07 08:40:19 hx puma[28320]: * Min threads: 0, max threads: 16
Apr 07 08:40:19 hx puma[28320]: * Environment: production
Apr 07 08:40:19 hx puma[28320]: * Process workers: 2
Apr 07 08:40:19 hx puma[28320]: * Phased restart available
Apr 07 08:40:19 hx puma[28320]: * Activated tcp://0.0:9233
Apr 07 08:40:19 hx puma[28320]: * Activated ssl://0.0:9234?key=key.pem&cert=cert.pem
Apr 07 08:40:19 hx puma[28320]: Use Ctrl-C to stop


By default, capistrano3-puma uses pumactl for deployment restarts outside of systemd. To learn the exact commands that this tool would use for ExecStart and ExecStop, use the following cap commands in dry-run mode, and update from the above forking service configuration accordingly. Note also that the configured User should likely be the same as the capistrano3-puma :puma_user option.

stage=production # or different stage, as needed
cap $stage puma:start --dry-run
cap $stage puma:stop  --dry-run